ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 4, 2021
The Relationship between Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae and Ticks in Northeast of Libya
Wedad, S. A. Mohamed, Aisha A. Mohammed, Ahmad M. Ekhnafer, Marfoua S. Ali
Page no 18-22
Spotted fever group Rickettsiae are predominantly transmitted by ticks. Rickettsiae have developed many strategies to adapt to different environmental conditions, including those within their arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. The tick-Rickettsiae relationship has been a point of interest for many researchers, with most studies concentrating on the role of ticks as vectors. Unfortunately, less attention has been directed towards the relationship of Rickettsiae with tick cells, tissues, and organs. This work was carried out to identify and prepare smear from salivary gland of ticks. Ticks were collected from June to September, 2018 in vegetation around residences (n= 30) of people who have been in hospital as a result of symptoms related to spotted fever. Some samples were collected from patients who diagnosed with symptoms related to spotted fever in El-Beida City. Ticks were sorted by species and life stage into pools for analyses for pathogens. Smear of salivary gland for male and female of thick were stained with gram negative bacteria and examined under microscope. Results from stains were positive for the presence of bacteria in female sample and negative for male sample.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 6, 2021
Treatment of Ocular Hypertension: When to Treat as Decided by the Practitioner in Comparison to a Risk Calculator
Dr. Shyam Kumar Gupta, Dr. Bhaskar Agarwal
Page no 23-25
Aims: To compare the decision to treat between the practitioner and Star and Star II calculator for ocular hypertension patients. Study Design: A comparative cross sectional retrospective analytical study. Method: A retrospective analytical study, conducted at Glaucoma clinic of Dr. R M L hospital. All files of diagnosed cases of ocular hypertension were considered for the study. Information was gathered for each of the following 6 risk factors- Age, Sex, Intra-Ocular pressure, Vertical Cup-Disc ratio, Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD), Central Corneal Thickness (CCT). Results were compared with the clinical decision for treatment taken by glaucoma practitioners well versed with OHTS and EGPS guidelines for treatment of OHT and having more than ten years of experience in their field. Result: Records of a total of 1780 files registered in the glaucoma clinic of the hospital were screened. 202 files were cases of OHT. After applying the strict STAR II inclusion criteria only 32 patient files were selected for the study. These results were subjected to statistical analysis using Mcnemar test which revealed that there was no statistical difference between the two (p = 0.3018) at 95% confidence interval. Conclusion: Our study found no statistically significant difference between the decision to treat by the two modalities i.e. STAR II (using 15% cut-off) and the clinician decision. STAR calculator can be of help in management of a case of OHT.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 10, 2021
Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor +405G/C Polymorphism with Diabetic Retinopathy among Sudanese Patients
Hoyam Yousif Hussin, Waleed Abdelateif Hussein, Sabah A. E. Ibrahim, Sumaya Kambal, Salih Abdelgader Almhdi, Abd Elkarim A. Abdrabo
Page no 26-32
Background: Diabetic retinopathy) DR) is a major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults and is characterized by increased vascular permeability, tissue ischemia, and neo-vascularization. Neovascularization of the retina carries a high risk of blindness as a result of vitreous hemorrhage and fibrosis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels. Polymorphisms within the VEGF gene lead to differences in VEGF expression between individuals and could influence the etiology of a variety of pathologic conditions with which VEGF has been associated. The aim of this study is to investigate +405G/C polymorphism of VEGF gene in Sudanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to evaluate its relationship with the development and improvment of diabetic retinopathy. Materials and Methods: A total of 189individuals subjects divided to 3 groups (diabetics with DR, diabetics without DR and health individuals) were observed to determine the relationship between DR and +405 G/C VEGF gene polymorphism. Results: This study revealed that patients with GC genotypes are about 57.6 % at risk (95% CI 1.022-2.431) to develop DR, while the risk is about 40% (95% CI 0.404-0.893) in DM patients without DR than those without GC genotype. Conclusion: These results indicated that +405 VEGF G/C polymorphism could be used in the evaluation, development, and progression of DR.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 11, 2021
Prevalence of Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) Syndrome in Patients in East Libya: Hospital-based Study
Bahjah Abdulhamid Hamad Esehiyb, Prof. Anwer Gebril Eldursi, Mariam M.B. Gebril
Page no 33-36
PEX is a systemic disease with ocular manifestations represented by deposition of white fibrillogranular material on the internal tissue of the eye. It is an age related and environmentally influenced disorder of the elastic fibre structure. Pseudo exfoliation is present worldwide in every race and ethnic group with variable prevalence. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of records of 398 patients, scheduled for cataract surgery in the martyr Sohail Alatrash eye hospital- Benghazi from 1-Januray-2010 to 31-May -2010, were included. Demographic parameters like age and sex as well as clinical Features including the presence of PEX were collected. Results: Out of 398 patients enrolled, 56 were diagnosed with PEX. A statistically insignificant relationship was found between PEX and advancing age in both males and females (𝑃> 0.005). Conclusion: We found the prevalence of PEX syndrome among Libyans patients with age –related cataract scheduled for surgery aged 40 years or older to be 14.1%.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Feb. 21, 2021
Molecular Detection of Virulence Genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates from Khartoum State Hospitals, Sudan
Ashraf Mohammed Abdelrahman, Nagla Mohammed Ahmed
Page no 37-42
Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses a variety of virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity. Dissemination of resistant and highly virulent pathogens is also the main problem worldwide. Thus this study aimed to determine the frequency of oprI, Las B and toxA virulence genes among the clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa species. A total of 100 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were collected from Hospitals and laboratories from different specimens during the period from August 2019 to November 2020. The isolates were re- identified using routine culture techniques, and multiplex PCR was applied to detect the presence of these virulence genes among them. It was found that the frequency of virulence genes were (22%) Las B, (55%) OprI, (15%) Tox A and (8%) mixed of OprI and Tox A. These genes were found with different percentage among the studied variables with the higher frequency among males, wound samples, except OprI were among 26-36 years age group and significantly among inpatients than out patients. The study concluded that all isolates carried either one or two of studied genes in different percentage while OprI represented the most predominant gene. Determination of different virulence genes of P. aeruginosa isolates suggests that they are associated with different levels of intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Feb. 26, 2021
Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications, Ethical and Legal Controversies
Neelam Saba, Wahied Khawar Balwan
Page no 43-48
Stem cells are special kind of cell from an embryo, foetus or adult, capable of renewing itself under certain conditions and of becoming specialised cells that make up the different tissues and organs of the body. They may be isolated from embryos, umbilical cords and adult tissues. Stem cells from embryos can treat many diseases but they are extremely dangerous and unpredictable. However, this power and versatility of these cells to produce different cell types has medical applications in cell therapies. Embryonic stem cell are harvested but this requires the destruction of human embryos, which is considered immoral and unethical, thus becoming contentious and giving rise to ethical controversies. However, stem cells isolated from adult tissues and created from skin cells addresses these issues. Most recently, they have been produced by reprogramming skin cells, an advance revolutionizing this field. Stem cell therapies have great potential. Stem cells provide an ideal model for studying the development of an organism and have the ability to replace damaged cells in the body that would otherwise not be replenished.