REVIEW ARTICLE | Nov. 25, 2019
A New Approach to Interaction between Beam Energy and Erbium Nanoparticles
Alireza Heidari, Katrina Schmitt, Maria Henderson, Elizabeth Besana
Page no 372-396
In the current study, thermoplasmonic characteristics of Erbium nanoparticles with spherical, core–shell and rod shapes are investigated. In order to investigate these characteristics, interaction of synchrotron radiation emission as a function of the beam energy and Erbium nanoparticles were simulated using 3D finite element method. Firstly, absorption and extinction cross sections were calculated. Then, increases in temperature due to synchrotron radiation emission as a function of the beam energy absorption were calculated in Erbium nanoparticles by solving heat equation. The obtained results show that Erbium nanorods are more appropriate option for using in optothermal human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment method.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 14, 2019
Prevalence and Predictors of Physical Inactivity in a Rural Poulation in Nigeria
Alikor Chizindu A, Emem-Chioma Pedro C
Page no 355-360
Introduction: Physical inactivity is a major contributor to the overall burden of cardiovascular disease such as storke, coronary artery diseases and other non-communicable diseases like type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer while Physical activity is a key and important factor that contributes to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical inactivity in a rural population in Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional rural population study involving 572 subjects aged 15 years and above. Socio-demographic data were obtained by face-to-face interview. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference measurements were taken along with blood pressure measurements. Blood samples were taken for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. Results: Five Hundred and seventy two had their data analysed with male to female ratio of 1:2.6. The overall mean age was 39.08±17.5 years. The overall prevalence of physical inactivity in this study was 3 % to 7.3% during commuting or working respectively with men being more active than females. The elderly age group of 70 years and above were more sedentary than all other age groups. Pearson correlation and Spearman’ rho correlation analyses showed that smoking and BMI correlated with obesity. Linear regression analysis showed that smoking and BMI predicted presence of physical inactivity. Conclusion: Physical inactivity prevalence in this study is low with smoking and BMI being important predictors.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Nov. 21, 2019
Adverse Effect on the Liver Biochemical Indices Following Dermal Exposure to Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil
Elechi, Udochi Alegua, Alikor Chizindu A
Page no 397-401
The liver one of the vital organs of the human body. Its main job is to sieve the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. The liver detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. The liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions. The present study evaluated the adverse effect on the liver biochemical indices following dermal exposure to nigerian bonny light crude oil (BLCO) on 25 albino whister rats. 10 albino whister rats served as control while 15 albino whister rats were treated and grouped into 3 based on the treatment scheme (1ml, 2ml, and 3ml). The body weight, serum biochemical assays of the liver where evaluated. The result obtained shows that there was an increase in the weight of the control (untreated) (101.20±2.781 and 111.40±2.591) for weight before and after treatment respectively with a statistically significant for the control, while the treated group (BLCO) had a mean of 120.00±10.351 (before treatment) and 106.33±10.431 (after treatment) showing a significant decrease in the weight of the exposed albino whister rats when compared with the control. The biochemical assays shows that ALP increased as the dose increased (1ml) 14.00±0.00, (2ml) 12.80±1.095 and (3ml) 13.40±2.191 respectively when compared with the control. The AST and ALT decreased as the dose increased (1ml) 218.20±25.743, (2ml) 59.80±12.050, and (3ml) 25.20±1.095 when compared with the control.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 22, 2019
Prevalence of Trypanosoma Evansi (Surra) Infection in Horses and Donkeys in Attock Region of Punjab, Pakistan
Syed Saad ul Hassan Bukhari, Muhammad Asif Rafiq, Usman Ghani
Page no 402-404
A clinical study has been carried out (from July to September, 2019) in order to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in horses and donkeys in the Attock region of Punjab-Pakistan. A total of 100 horses (50 stallions and 50 mares) and 100 donkeys (50 jacks and 50 jennets) were examined and T. evansi was searched by the examination of wet blood film and stained thin smears (Giemsa& field staining).Eleven horses (11%, three stallions and eight mares) and 9 donkeys (9%, four jacks and five jennets) were positive respectively. However, further studies and efforts must be done by the society, government and private institutions in order to develop control measures in diseased studs/areas and to avoid dissemination of the disease.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 29, 2019
In Vitro Antioxidants, Antimicrobials and Biochemical Response of Methanol Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis following Sub-Acute Administration to Rats
Onukogu Stella Chiamaka, Tsado Amos Ndarubu, Muhammad F. Mahmood, Alawode Rahmatallah Adenike, Suleiman Alfa, Ojo Olufunmilola Praise, Oshevire Rejoice-Eyihuri Musili, Aishatu Mustapha, Lawal Bashir
Page no 405-411
Methanol leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was investigated for phytochemical compositions, antioxidants, antimicrobial and safety profile. The antibacterial study was carried out using agar well diffusion method, while antioxidant activities were evaluated by 2, 2′- diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A total of fifteen rats were divided into three groups (5 rats each) and were given 0, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt of the extract orally for 28 days. Results revealed that tannins (24.72±0.36 g) is the most abundant phytochemicals followed by phenols (6.01±0.89 mg/g) while alkaloid (0.19±0.67 mg/g) was the least. Extract demonstrated antioxidant activities with IC50 of the 244.98±5.24 µg/mL and 462.755 ± 6.98 µg/mL in DPPH and FRAP assays respectively. The extract inhibited the bacteria growth with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) values ranged between 7.5-60 μg mL–1 and 60-12 μg mL–1 respectively. The concentrations of albumins, bilirubins sodium, potassium, creatinine, serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were not significantly (p>0.05) altered by the extract. Urea concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher while proteins were lower in rats treated with 500 mg/kg bw of the extract. Methanol extract of E. camaldulensis could be considered as a cheap source of effective and safe herbal remedy with potential candidate for the development of a new drug.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 20, 2019
Testicular Antioxidants and Serum Lipid Effects of the Fruit of Solanum Melongena on Wistar Rats
Chibuike Obiandu, Karibo Okari
Page no 361-366
Solanum Melongena is a highly nutritive medicinal plant which is cultivated in many countries including Nigeria where it is mainly grown in the northern part of the country.The plant is also applied in folklore remedies in the treatment of different ailments.The present study was carried out to investigate the testicular antioxidant and lipid effects of the fruit of Solanum Melongena on male wistar rats. The rats were divided into three (3) groups of six (6) rats each. Group one (1) served as control and received distilled water. Group two (2) and group three (3) were treated with 200mg/kg bw and 400mg/kg bw of the hydromethanol (20:80) extract of Solanum Melongena respectively. Extract was administered orally as single daily dose for a period of 30 days. The results obtained showed that the extract caused significant increase in the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities and also signicantly reduced malondialdehyde level. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly reduced but the serum concentrations of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased. This study have shown that extract of Solanum Melongena inhibit lipid peroxidation and may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease in male wistar rats.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 20, 2019
Retrospective Study of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Thyroid Lesions According to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology in El-Beida City
Raba M abdalkarem, Marfoua S Ali, Asma AM Abdalraziq, Tarek R S Alag
Page no 367-371
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays important role in diagnosis of thyroid lesions. However conventional reporting of cytology lack standardize format. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) presented at Bethesda in 2007 to address this barrier and facilitate communication between cytopathology’s and clinician. This study was designed to classify thyroid FNAC according to TBSRTC, calculate malignancy risk by analytical cross sectional study. All the FNAC of thyroid lesions came during August 2013 to December 2014 were classified in to six categories of TBSRTC. Distribution of cases in each category was calculated. Cytopathology examination carried out whenever tissue was available and malignancy risk calculated. A total number 115 patients was enrolled to this study, 96 (83.48%) females and 19 (16.52%) males. The patients’ ages ranged from 17 years to 80 years. The highest prevalence was noted in age groups 41-50 years followed with age groups 31-40 years with for both genders. All FNAS results were classified in to six categories of TBSRTC. The highest prevalence was recorded with benign with 51.3%, followed by A.U.S with 14.7% then U.N.S with 11.3%. Use of TBSRTC for thyroid FNAC reporting helps to highlight increased malignancy risk associated with different classification and malignant categories related to cytology of thyroid lesions.