ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 10, 2021
Identification of Bioactive Compound, Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia adoensis var. koseret from Ethiopia
Yordanos Germame, Tegenu Mekuria
Page no 139-153
Lippia adoensis var. koseret is a well- known medicinal plant endemic to Ethiopia. It has been traditionally used to treat different infectious diseases and also in food preparation as condiment. The focuse of the present paper was to evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous extracts of leave of L. adoensis var. koseret against S. aureus E.coli and P. aeruginosa at two concentration level (5 and 10mg/ml) and Phytochemical and Thin Layer Chromatography analysis of the extracts showed antibacterial activity. The antibacterial assay was carried out using agar well diffusion method. Broth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using the standard phytochemical assays. Thin Layer Chromatography analysis of the methanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves was carried out using the solvent system Hexane: Ethyl acetate (in 7:3 ratios). The results of antibacterial assay revealed that methanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts active against E.coli and P. aeruginosa. Among the tested microorganism S. aureus, was resistant to all extracts. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various chemical compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and tannins. While, carbohydrate and amino acid were absent. Thin Layer Chromatography analysis of the methanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of Lippia adoensis var. koseret revealed bands indicating the presence of various compounds that could act as potential antimicrobial agents.
The basic structure of melatonin is evolutionarily conserved. Hence, it was speculated that melatonin may be present in different animals (from unicellular to multi-cellular) and even in plants. Melatonin in plans is generally regarded as phyto-melatonin. Like the role of melatonin in animals, phyto-melatonin can perform a number of functions like attenuation of apoptosis, prevention of free radical generation, protection against UV irradiation etc. But, unlike phyto-estrogen, the role of phyto-melatonin in animals is totally an unexplored area. Hence, aim of the present study was to note the role of phyto-melatonin in maintenance of general health and immunity of goats. To fulfil the aim, we supplemented the goats with phyto-melatonin rich diet i.e. corn (Zea mays) which is having 1.4 ng/gm of dry weight of tissue and they are also edible to goats. We noted significantly high level of body weight, haematological (AST, ALT level, total RBC count and %Hb), immunological (TLC, %LC, %SR of PBMCs), metabolic (plasma glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, protein levels and HDL: LDL ration), free radical (SOD, catalase, GPx levels), hormonal (estrogen, melatonin), cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) levels and significantly low level of MDA. However, plasma testosterone was unaffected upon phyto-melatonin treatment. Thus, for the first time role of phyto-melatonin as a protective molecule with improving effect on the health and immunity of Indian goat Capra hircusis being proposed, as the effect of phyto-melatonin supplementation can be brought back to normal and this dietary supplement might be utilizing the similar pathway as commercial melatonin. There are so many less expensive and readily available sources of phyto-melatonin that requires the proper knowledge of exploitation of these sources for extreme benefit for animals as well as for the human beings in near or far future.