Natural products, such as plants extract, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug discoveries. The research is aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and characterization of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves oil. The physicochemical were evaluated using the standard procedure and the oil was fund to be light yellow color having camphor like smell. The pH of the oil at 22oC was found to be 4.62 while the % oil yield, Optical activity, Refractive index at 27°C, Specific gravity at 27°C, were found to be 49.5±1.021, +34.2°, 1.4384 and 0.812 respectively. The absolute and kinematic viscosity of the leaves oil were 102.30 and 88.20 respectively and the Total acid number (TAN) in mg KOH/g, Iodine number and saponification number were 1.67, 109 and 110.00 respectively. GC-MS revealed the presence of 16 compounds representing 86.96 % of the total oil. The major component was 1,8-cineole (49.08 %), Eucalyptol (34.42) followed by α-pinene (23.90 %), while L-pinocarveol (8.98 %) and globulol (2.71) were the least components. Also α-terpineol, myrtenol, camphene and ciscarveol were present in the oil. The result revealed that Eucalyptus camaldulensis leave oil consist mostly of oxygenated monoterpenes that could be very useful for human, animals and industries, also the oil met the FOA/WHO standard of oils. Therefore, these essential oils could be considered as promising substances for development of new drugs. Hence it potential for medicinal and pharmacological uses.
REVIEW ARTICLE | March 7, 2020
A Critical Review of Netra Sharir of Ayurveda in the Modern Perspective
The Indian system of Ayurvedic medicine has described three basic physiological constituents of human body, viz., dosha, dhatu and mala. Acharya Sushruta was a great surgeon in ancient India known today as the “Father of Shalya Tantra (Surgery)” for inventing and developing surgical procedures. Acharya Sushruta has elaborately described the defining characteristic of Shalakya tantra. It comprises of the disease of shalakya tantra as narrated by king of Videha (the author of Nimi Tantra). Acharya Sushruta first ever has described the anatomy of eye in relation to their shape, size of various anatomical components. Acharya Sushruta has also described the Netra roga in a very systematic manner. In the Uttara tantram, Sushruta recites an elaborated classification of eye disease complete with signs, symptoms, prognosis and medically surgical interventions. In the foetus, the parts of eye are originated from akasha, vayu, agni, apa and prithvi mahabhuta. Acharya Sushruta has described all anatomical structures of the eye in terms of madala, patala, sandhis, peshi, marma, sira and Dristi. Susruta delineated fine anatomical divisions mandala of eye. Different Acharyas have their own view in the utpatti (origin) of Netra during garbhawastha kala. Increased demand of Ayurveda science in the present society is required to understand the depth of Ayurvedic principle in an easy mode. Hence an effort has been made to ascertain and establish the knowledge regarding anatomical structure of netra sharir.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | March 28, 2020
Subclinical Hypo and Hyperthyroidism is Prevalent both in Pakistani and Afghani Population of Quetta City-Pakistan
Ruquia Abdul Wahid, Mahrukh Naseem, Asmatullah Kakar, Zafarullah, Nayab Khan, Muhammad Irfan Masood
The thyroid gland is a major endocrine gland. Subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common health issue particularly in the developing and if remain untreated can manifest serious health consequences. The aim of this study was to figure out the current situation of subclinical thyroid disease in the Pakistani and Afghan refugees living in Quetta city. For this purpose different public sector hospitals were visited on regular bases from October 2018 to October 2019 to find out the prevalence of this disease. Subclinical hypo and hyperthyroid patients of both the nationalities age among 20-70 years were enrolled. Furthermore, the prevalence of clinical sign and symptoms related to thyroidal dysfunction, the physical activities of the patients, use of iodized/non-iodized salt, feeding habit was also recorded. To confirm the status of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism the thyroid functional test (TFT) was performed by using Radio Immuno Assay (RIA). Our data showed that the prevalence of Thyroidism was higher in females than males both in Pakistani and Afghani patients. The overall prevalence of euthyroid was (21.66%), hypothyroidism (45.83%) and hyperthyroid (32.52%), thus the prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be higher than hyperthyroidism and this prevalence was high in the patients among 20-45 years of age. Furthermore, the prevalence data related to clinical sign showed that weight gain (82.12%), cold intolerance (79.60%) and anxiety (74.34%) was more common in hypothyroid patients whereas, weight loss (84.23%), goiter (79.13%) and increase heart rate (78.51%) were the common issues in hyperthyroid patients.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | March 30, 2020
A Clinical Trial on the Effecacy of Sadvindu Taila Nasya on Sirashool W.S.R to Frontal Sinuisitis
Sinusitis one of the most troublesome diseases disturbing the usual daily activities. It is manifested by severe headache, nasal discharge, sneezing etc which creates a great problem. For its management analgesics, nasal decongestants & finally curettage of the sinus to remove the fluid deposit is adopted in modern medical science. However in Ayurveda Nasya & Dhumapan is best applied in this connection. A clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of Sadvindu Taila nasal drop in the management of frontal sinusitis. For this purpose total 40 patients of frontal sinusitis were collected from the OPD & IPD of Gangasheel Ayurvedic medical college, Bareilly(UP) as per the selection criteria. They were divided into two groups i.e. trial group & control group (consisting of 20 patients each) to whom the nasal drop Sadvindu Taila & Otrivin (Xylometazoline hydrochloride) nasal drop was given respectively. The trial drug was given in the prescribed dose for 7 days under Nasya & Dhumapana procedure. The control drug, in normal way only nasal instillation. After 7 days evaluation was done depending on the subjective & objective parameters. For statistical evaluation, mean ± SD, paired t-test was calculated. It was observed that the trial drug is very much effective in decreasing Headache, sneezing, nasal discharge & other allergic manifestation. Radiological the fluid level also decreased. Though the drug is better effective but it is not accepted by all the patients as it causes severe irritation in nasal mucosa. With the total study it can be concluded that the trial drug Sadvindu Taila has a great scope in the management of sinusitis, especially frontal sinusitis. Further studies are required to establish the drug more scientifically.
Scholars Middle East Publishers
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