ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 2, 2021
Synthesis, Characterization of Schiff Bases Derived from Salicylaldehyde with Some Amino Acids by a New Developed Method
Asha FadllallahWady, Mohammed Bahreldin Hussein, Muna Mahdi Mohammed
Page no 46-53
Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group; a carboxylic acid group and aside chain that varies between different amino acids. These molecules are particularly important in biochemistry, Amino acids containing uncharged amino groups, at physiological PH values, may also undergo Schiff base formation, which presents another potential mechanism for metal complexes. In this study, four new amino acid Schiff base compounds namely; 5-Chlorosalcialdehyde-glycine (H2L1), 5-Chlorosalycialdehyde-alanine (H2L2), 5-Nitrosalycialdehyde-glycine (H2L3), 5-Nitrosalycialdehyde-alanine (H2L4). Derived from condensation reaction of substitutedsalicylaldehyde with some amino acids; glycine and α-alanine, with a new alternative method. The development includes the use of 10-2mole sodium hydroxide as a new catalyst, which is added to the classical method of Schiff bases synthesis. The four Schiff bases were characterized by elemental analysis (C.H.N) and spectroscopic methods; IR, 1H and 13C NMR. These methods were applied successfully for characterization of the prepared Schiff bases.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 2, 2021
Relationship between Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Physicochemical Properties of Wetland Soil at Oguta Lake, Imo State, Nigeria
A.W. Verla, J.A. Olumba, E.N. Verla, U.K. Okoro, F.C. Ibe, A.P. Ahuocha, A.I. Opara, C.E. Enyoh
Page no 54-65
Wetlands play significant role in climate change contributing about 5% of the global Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission through respiration which is being thought to be influenced by the soil properties. In this study the aim is to establishing relationship between wetland soil physicochemical properties and CO2 respiration from Oguta lake point one. Standard methods were used to determine the soil properties and an AZ 77535 CO2 gas analyzer held at arm’s length was used to determine the concentration of CO2 at sample location. Mean results showed pH (5.03), temperature (28.16 oC), electrical conductivity (108.56 uS/cm), moisture content (17.83 %) and organic matter (1.35 %). Mean weekly [CO2] concentrations (564 ± 13.5 to 580.72.2 ± 13.03 ppm) were higher than mean around the world (370 ppm) and higher all sites around the lake including the control site (425 ± 2.5 to 438.2 ± 2.0 ppm). There was positive relationship with [CO2] and R2 values of (0.262), (0.370), (0.304), (0.294) and (0.056) respectively were observed. This confirms that the respiration of CO2 is influenced by the soil properties. An increase in soil properties reflected an increase CO2 concentration. Results add to information on how soil properties can be modified to reduce soil respired CO2, thereby reducing wetland contributions to global warming.
REVIEW ARTICLE | June 2, 2021
Green Corrosion inhibition behavior of Spondias cytheria leaves extract and its Synergism with Chloride Ions on Mild Steel in H2SO4
A.I. Obike, E.K. Abraham, M. Iwuagwu, C.L. Okechukwu
Page no 66-72
The synergistic inhibition behavior of Spondias cytheria and chloride ions on mild steel in H2SO4 solution were studied using the gravimetric and gasometric techniques. From the investigation the results showed that Spondias cytheria and KCl are good corrosion inhibitors. The leaf extract showed maximum inhibition efficiency of 88.52% and 81.42% for gravimetric and gasometric analysis respectively. The leaf extracts + KCl showed maximum inhibition efficiency of 91.49% and 83.76% for gravimetric and gasometric analysis respectively. It was generally observed that the addition of KCl improved the inhibition of the leaf extract. Considering the Ea, Kads, ∆Gads, Qads, the process of corrosion inhibition is attributed to be by physical adsorption. Comparing the R2 values, it could be observed that the data fitted well to Freundlich for the leaf extract and Langmuir for the leaf extract + KCl.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 8, 2021
Adsorption of Lead from Aqueous Solution by Pulverized Local Clay
Abimbola George Olaremu
Page no 73-78
Removal of heavy metals from water presents a lingering challenge. Inorganic pollutants are persistent and non-biodegradable, hence are retained in polluted sites for a very long time. Due to their poisoning nature, it becomes imperative to develop cost-effective methods for their removal. In this study, a local clay mineral was collected and mildly treated for the adsorption of lead from an aqueous solution. The applicability of the pulverized clay from the Akoko region of Ondo state Nigeria, for removal of lead from aqueous solution, was evaluated using the batch sorption process. The role of pH, initial lead concentration, agitation time, and temperature were analyzed to get optimum conditions for maximum removal of lead. Experimental data were best fitted to Freundlich adsorption isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.49 mg/g at correlation coefficient > 0.99. It was found that 80 minutes of contact, basic pH, and ambient temperature were optimum conditions for the removal of lead using pulverized clay. These findings further buttress that readily available geochemical substance can be harnessed for the decontamination of metal pollution in water/wastewater.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 9, 2021
Assessment of Different Sourced Water Quality to be Suitable for Human Uses
Mohammed Abdalla Hussein, Esraa Salama Khalifa, Samah Saeed Abdel-Azeem, Sara Hamdy Hussein, Fatma Elzahraa Yasser Hassan, Lamis Amin Fahmy, Wessam Khaled El-sayed, Wael Mahmoud Aboulthana, Yasser Hagag Mohamed, Ali AbdelAziz Ali
Page no 79-88
There were two new water sources were identified in Greater Cairo. Ain Alhaya is one of the most common springs that are subjected to continuous increase in the ground water level. Ain El-Khiala is a greenish brown spring located to the south of Ain El-Sira. During the present study, samples were collected from these regions and compared to quality of water collected from River Nile, Ismailia Canal and tap water (chlorinated treated water). The physicochemical parameters, disinfection by-products (DBPs) were measured in the collected samples in addition to microbiological examination. It was showed that quality of water was the same in River Nile and Ismailia Canal. The disinfection by chlorination is effective in water treatment and enhanced the water quality as compared to the other different sourced water although it gives various by-products. As regard to the springs, it was noticed that water quality is highly better in Ain Alhaya than Ain El-Khiala. The study concluded that there were statistical correlations among the physico-chemical, microbiological and organic measurements in different sourced water as compared to river nile and the most significant correlations were noticed among microbiological and organic measurements.
REVIEW ARTICLE | June 11, 2021
Chemical Reactors with Exothermic Reactions on the Plug Flow and Study it by New Approach Strategy ASM
M.R.Akbari, Sara.Akbari, Esmaeil.Kalantari
Page no 89-91
In this paper, our aims are accuracy, capabilities and power at solving set of the complex non-linear differential at the reaction chemical. As all experts know most of engineering actual systems behavior in practical are nonlinear process and analytical scrutiny these nonlinear problems are difficult or sometimes impossible. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equations at chemical engineering and similar issues with a simple and innovative approach which entitled.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 11, 2021
Trace Metal Concentrations of Surface Sediments and Total Organic Carbon of Sediment Core Recovered From Lagos Coastal Waters, Southwestern Nigeria
Shelle Rafiu Olaniyi, Samuel Olatunde Popoola
Page no 92-102
Recent residential and industrial effluents had triggered the need to continually monitor and assess the hydrochemistry and pollution index of Lagos coastal waters and sediments in Southwest Nigeria. To assess environmental contamination in the Lagos coast, twenty stations (with a recent report of anthropogenic activities) were selected, to determine the concentrations and distributions of hydro-chemical characteristics, heavy metals and total organic content (TOC). The hydro-chemical characteristics (pH; temperature; dissolved oxygen; electrical conductivity; salinity; total dissolved solids; sulphate, chloride, phosphate, nitrate, ammonia, sodium and potassium) of water samples from all the stations studied are within desirable levels for healthy marine ecosystems (except for low (<6) pH at station 8 (Ikorodu Port); station 10 and 11 (Mid Lagoon); station 16 (Badore) and station 19 (Ikosi). The concentrations of heavy metals present in the studied area followed the sequence: Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. The increased TOC concentrations of the representative short sediment core with depth at station 4 (Iddo) and station 15 (Ikota) suggest record of anthropogenic organic pollutions at the stations. The calculated contamination factor (CF) showed extremely severe contamination (CF > 6) of cadmium (Cd) at station 3 (Ijora), station 4, station 5 (Okobaba), station 6 (Unilag), station 7 (Agboyin) and station 12 (Egbin). The pollution load index (PLI) pointed out high pollution risk (PLI > 1) to the marine ecosystems at Ijora; Iddo and Okobaba, which necessitate regular and continuous monitoring of the coastal waters and estuaries of the Southwestern Nigeria to ensure food security and the safety of the marine ecosystems. The outcome of this study will sound alarm on the increasing levels of inorganic and organic pollutants in the Lagos coastal waters. Southwest Nigeria.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | June 26, 2021
Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Hetarylazo Disperse Colorants: Preparation and Properties of Ink-Jet Inks with a New Antimicrobial Agent for Ink-Jet Printing
E. K. Karanikas, N. F. Nikolaidis
Page no 103-111
The synthesis and characterization of two hetarylazo disperse colorants is described. These compounds were used for the preparation of ink-jet inks with and without active agents for digital printing. Viscosity, surface tension, conductivity and pH values of all inks, with and without active agent, were monitored over a period of 90 days and were related to the ink stability. The same properties were measured for an ink preparation with a commercial dye for comparison. The inks which containing the new synthesized compounds with and without active agent were applied by exhaustion (dyed) on polyester and polyamide samples. Fastness (light, wash and rub) and also color properties of the samples were measured. Also, quantitative determination of the new antimicrobial agent was made from the dyed samples with exhaustion. The optimum application level required to give long lasting antimicrobial protection was determined by carrying out a series of antimicrobial testing.