ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 7, 2021
Extraction, Compositional Analysis and Therapeutic Studies of Essential Oils Obtained From The Leaves of Ocimum gratissimum And Leucas martinicensis.
Uba B, Umar M, Aminu HT
Page no 283-294
The composition and therapeutic values of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of O. gratissimum and L. martinicensis was investigated. The GC-MS results reveals the presence of bioactive compound such as eucalyptol (10.99%), estragole (48.52%) and linalool (24.49%) in O. gratissimum while for the Leucas martinicensis its reveals the presence of diazoprogesterone (0.15%), Isoaromadendrene epoxide (0.10%) and beta.-copaene (4.37%). Oxalic acid, oleic acid, p-Menth-8(10)-en-9-ol, and Caryophyllene was detected in the essential oils of both plants. The IR-spectroscopy results confirmed the functional group of most of the compound identified. Test for tannins, flavonoids, steroids, cardiac glycoside, alkaloids terpenoid, and anthraquinone were positive in methanolic and aqueous extracts of both plants. The in vitro antimicrobial screening of the essential oils against S. aureous, E.coli, S. pneumonia, K. pneumonia, A. niger and C. albicans showed that they are potential antimicrobial agents. The DPPH scavenging activity of essential oils showed that L. martinicensis with an IC50 of (145.7ug/ml) have higher antioxidant activity than essential oil obtained from the leaves of O. gratissimum with the IC50 of (158.3ug/ml) but their activities is lower than the standard with IC50 of (134.3ug/ml) and (145.7ug/ml) respectively.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 10, 2021
Determination of Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Chromiun (Cr) and the pH assay in Walnuts Selected Locations of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria
Page no 295-297
The analysis of Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Chromium(Cr) and PH in walnuts were carried out in four different locations which includes Rumueme, Eliozu/Air Force, Oil mill and Aba road, the lead, iron and Chromium concentrations were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (AAS) while the PH of the samples were analysed using a ph meter . the results obtained showed wide variations of concentrations of heavy metals present in these different locations as shown in tables 4.1, 4.2,4.3 and 4.4, the level of lead in the four different locations were high compared to the World Health Organisation’s recommendation which is about 0.005mg, this was actually attributed to the industrial activities taking place in these areas, and this may result to some health risks like cancer, asthma, hypertention,etc if the walnuts sold in these areas are excessively consumed, however, the PH result obtained for the four different locations were 6.20,6.50.5..30 and 6.40 respectively, this revealed that the cooked walnuts are quite acidic and may be due to the sources of water and other environmental factors.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Dec. 13, 2021
Effects of Composition Nb on Structure & Mechanical Property of Ti3Al
Run Xu, Sugun Lim
Page no 298-303
The Nb was the most effective alloy elements of Ti3Al alloy on RT plasticity in the late 1970’s. The effects of Nb content in as cast α2 based Ti-25at.%Al-(11-16)at.%Nb alloys made by plasma arc melting on structures and mechanical properties were studied in this paper. The Prior /α2 grain boundaries were found to increase both ductility and strength. The size of α2 plates resulted in finer α2 cleavage facet which would be fine when Nb content was increased. They would cause high fracture strain and strength in high Nb content alloys. The lattice ratio of 2 phase will be decreased when the Nb was increased. It was supposed that the Nb could substitute for the Ti so that the distance of a axis between atoms would be increased. According to Hall-Petch formula with σ=σ0+kD-1/ the grain boundary int these three alloys was calculated and knew that σ0 is 168MPa, K is 10.8MPam-1/2. The effective turn of four respects is lattice constant c> c/a> V> lattice a in terms of variance method with the deviation in these three alloys that means that lattice c is the best one and then c/a& V and finally lattice a in terms of deviation.. It was found the calculated value c/a is 0.81 meantime volume of unit has been 0.42nm3 and their standard deviation is about 0.16% and 0.32% respectively. It expresses that the later volume is not preciser than the former c/a.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 14, 2021
Original Research Article Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel from Congolese Non-Edible Oleaginous Plant Allanblackia floribunda Oliv
A. Mulula, Thierno N.Manoka
Page no 304-309
Vegetable oil-based fuels are promising alternative fuels for diesel and light fuel engines because of their environmental and economic strategic advantages. In this study, we prepared the biodiesel from Congolese underutilized, nonedible Oleaginous Plant A. floribunda Oliv, and we determined its physicochemical properties according to the international standards for biodiesels and petro-diesels. A. floribunda oil was extracted and transesterified by alkali-catalyst using methanol with KOH as catalyst. The maximum yield of the obtained fatty acid methyl ester FAME (biodiesel) was 87.23%. The GC-MS Chromatography of the obtained fatty acid methyl ester FAME (biodiesel) showed the presence of Stearic acid, Oleic acid, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid and Alpha-linolenic acid in the quantity of 61.68, 35.20, 1.15, 1.27 and 0.68%, respectively. Physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, flash, cloud and pour point; ash, water and sulfur contents; and corrosion on copper) values of Biodiesel (B100), and B20 (FAME blend in Gasoil), were within the range of values set by the international standards specifications of Petro-diesel and biodiesel (American Standard: ASTM D-6751 and European Standard- EN 14214). Thus, these two types of biodiesel (B100 and B20) could be used in a diesel engine in substitution of the Petro-diesel (Gasoil).
REVIEW ARTICLE | Dec. 17, 2021
Discussions to Development of Artificial Intelligence Industry in Africa IV
Run Xu, Sugun Lim, Younwook Kim
Page no 310-313
The future trends from high technology to artificial intelligence industry are analyzed in detail. Put forward to the implementation of high technology and artificial intelligence products and put their possibilities into practice. Specific response measures are pointed out in two respects, indicating that they are urgently needed to run the factory products. In additional the artificial intelligence products shall be established in Africa in order to promote new and innovative energy. Due to its low labour and undeveloped industry many opportunity will await us to mine its countless chance and profit. Like south eastern Africa they can live together with better status because of their development. So if endeavor is imported many new project will be found by us together. Let us continue to pay attention to Africa for better benefit and common development. Scheme design should includes cost control which may be evaluated by relative institution. Once it passes by the construction will proceed relative plan to complete the building work. Only it fits to local status can it be done preparation work. For the purpose of the common development we should enhance the technological communication to construct the beautiful world with high artificial intelligence industries in African continent.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Dec. 19, 2021
Discussions to African Development of Technology and Innovation in its Industry
Run Xu, Sugun Lim
Page no 314-317
The future trends from high technology to automobile components industry are analyzed in detail. Put forward to the implementation of their products and put their possibilities into practice. Specific response measures are pointed out in two respects, indicating that they are urgently needed to run the factory products. In additional the products shall be established in Africa in order to promote new and innovation. It can be acquired through train in and between factories besides the school. Due to its low labour and undeveloped industry many opportunity will await us to mine its countless chance and profit. Like in Africa they can loan with urgent and above two because of their development demand. So if endeavor is imported many new project will be found by us together. Let us continue to pay attention to Africa for better benefit and common development. In this paper the development of technology and innovation in Africa has been discussed trying to find their intrinsic relationship from respects of the urgent, high technology & automobile in bank loan. The privilege to these field capital will benefit their development in advance and rapidly which can create many innovations in the course of making goods. We should exploit more wide field for high technological product to give convenience to make them to proceed more innovation technology for Africa and world human being.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 30, 2021
Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Molybdenum Complex with Biologically active Ligand
Page no 326-329
Molybdenum Complex with organic ligand is compound of great theoretical and practical interest especially valuable as model systems for biochemical process. Moreover, dithiocarbamate ligand is known to form stable Complex with many Transition metals. Interest in Complex arises because of its versatile structure of Biological activity. The Mo (V) Complex was optimized and a description of the structural parameters is given. Finally the complex was examined as potential antimicrobial agents.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 29, 2021
Effect of Acetic Acid and Alpha-Amylase Modifications on Some Physichochemical Properties of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Cocoyam) Starch
Sule, M, Musa A. D, Egwim, E. C, Ossamulu, I. F
Page no 318-325
This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of acetic acid and alpha-amylase modifications on the physicochemical properties of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (cocoyam) starch. Standard procedures were employed in determining the physicochemical features of the starch. The yield of starch from cocoyam root was 22.30 %. The result showed that of the native and modified starches did not show significant difference in the moisture content, and the swelling capacity of the native and modified starches. The amylose content showed that acetic acid modified starch had significantly (p<0.05) higher amylose content (10.07±0.20 %) than the native and enzyme modified starches. The solubility of the starch was shown to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the native cocoyam starch (3.75 g/g) than in either acetic acid or enzyme modified starch (3.30±0.02 and 3.04±0.01 g/g) respectively. The gelatinization temperature of the starches was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the modified starch (82.51±0.08 and 81.15±0.05oC) than native starch. The water absorption capacity was significantly higher in native starch (6.65±0.12) than in the modified starches (2.14±0.07 and 2.03±0.04 for acetic acid and enzyme modified starches respectively). It is therefore noteworthy that modification of cocoyam starch may present it a worthy resource material for industrial application as such popularising its utility.