ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 5, 2020
Disperse Ink-Jet Inks with UV-Absorbers as Active Agents for Digital Printing to Polyester and Polyamide Fibres
Karanikas EK, Nikolaidis NF
Page no 143-151
Two UV-absorbers, Tinuvin 477-DW and Tinuvin 5333-DW were used as active agents in this work. These were added in two different amounts (1.0% and 2.0%) in water-based disperse ink-jet inks. The surface tension, pH, viscosity and conductivity of the prepared formulations were monitored over a period of 90 days in order to estimate the ink stability and the compatibility of the UV-absorbers with the ink constituents. The inks were used for ink-jet printing on paper, transfer printing on polyester and polyamide and thermostabilization. Wash light and rub fastness were evaluated on the printed samples. Color coordinates were measured. Qualitative determination of the active agents, adsorbed on the printed samples was made by using UV-Vis Spectroscopy.
REVIEW ARTICLE | Dec. 24, 2020
Research Progress on N-heterocyclic Carbene Boranes
Xue Wang, Yu-jie Yang, Yan-di Song, Shuang Zhao, Hong-jie Qu
Page no 152-163
N-heterocyclic carbene boranes (NHC-boranes) are a new kind of compounds which have characteristic structures, luxuriant chemical properties, and preparation with a simple method. They can be widely utilized in various organic synthetic chemical reactions. As practical synthetic reagents or intermediates, it has now attracted attention. In order to show that the status of NHC-boranes in organic synthesis cannot be ignored, this article reviews the structural characteristics, preparation methods and typical chemical reactions of NHC-boranes. We hope that this review can attract more attention, promote the development of synthetic organic chemistry, and apply them to a wider range of areas.
The author has recommended that for pairs of physical systems or qualities the method of energy exchange is studied, especially when the Cooper pairing can be applied.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Dec. 30, 2020
Effect of Carbamate and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues on Cocoa-producing Soil, Sediment and Water of Owena River Basin Ondo State, Nigeria
AdegunAyodejiOluwole, Akinnifesi Thompson A, Ololade Isaac A
Page no 169-178
This study investigated how carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues added to cocoa soil through agricultural activities related to the concentrations of pesticide residues in Owena river, Ondo State, Nigeria. Extractions from soil/sediment and water samples were obtained through ultrasonic bath extraction and liquid-liquid extraction respectively. The samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometry detector. The total mean carbamate pesticide residues level in dry season in the soil and sediment samples were 1.01±0.29µg/g and 2.45±2.38µg/g respectively. Their wet season level were 0.78±0.05µg/g and 0.76 ±0.15µg/g. The dry season pyrethroid pesticide residues level in the soil, sediment and water were 2.61 ±1.87µg/g,1.20±1.33µg/g and < 0.01µg/L respectively. Their wet season observation were 0.70 ±0.25µg/g and 0.42 ± 0.25µg/g for soil and sediment respectively. However, these pollutants were not found in the treated water.The mean level of these pollutants in the soil and surface water were below the former Nigerian Federal Environment Protection Agency maximum residue limit while their level in some of the sediment samples were higher than EU limit. This study, therefore, concluded that the soil, sediment and surface water in the study area were contaminated with carbamate and pyrethroid pesticide residues associated with cocoa farming around the river basin, although the treated water from the State water Works is safe for drinking. Therefore,the study recommended proper legislation and enforcement of laws on the control of these contaminants.