REVIEW ARTICLE | Oct. 14, 2019
Improved Engineering Tribological Property of Natural Fibres by Surface Modifications: A Review
Obuka Nnaemeka S. P, Ani Ndubuisi J, Ozioko Emeka R
Page no 86-100
Increasing interest in natural fibres for composite material formation and applications informs the aim of this paper on review of various surface modification methods employed towards the improvement of the Tribological properties of these fibres for interfacial bonding with polymer matrices. Natural fibres have wonderful properties ranging from accessibility, bi-degradability, recyclability, low density and many more but have particular negative characteristic that needs to be corrected in order to improve its surface interaction with composite matrices; which is their great affinity for water. Different methods of treating natural fibres have been applied towards reducing the hydrophilic nature of these fibres. These surface modification processes do not only reduce water absorption capability of these fibres but also increases fibrillation and material wettability. This review of literatures showed that mercerization treatment and acetylation treatment are the most applicable surface modifications or treatments for natural fibres.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 11, 2019
Phytochemical Screening of Okra plant from Libya
Ahmed Belgasem Ahmed, Hamed Alqamoudy, Ameerah Shaeroun, Ahlam Rashed, EL-Mahmoudy, Akram Almabrouk Misbah, Nadea Almunir, Manal M Elshili, FadiaTaufik M, Nouri Kushlaf
Page no 101-103
The interest in medicinal plants in all modern scientific research remains to discover many medicines and drugs to reduce incurable diseases. This study aimed at detecting the effective chemical compounds, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids. In addition, the possibility of separating some of these compounds by TLC. The results obtained from this study have shown that most of these compounds are found. In addition to the ability of organic mobile phase to separate of these components where the values of Rf one to three spots .It indicates the difference in polarity and the composition of these compounds found in Okra under study.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Oct. 30, 2019
Optimization the Ratio of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) and Mixed Metal Soap (Al-Ca) in the Manufacture of Biodegradable Solid Lubricants
Sukmawati, Pratiwi Putri Lestari
Page no 104-108
Increased development in the industrial and transportation sectors today significantly increases the use of lubricants. This means that a significant amount of lubrication is needed to meet consumption needs in the industrial and transportation sectors. Palm Fatty Acid Destillate (PFAD) has a high enough potential to be used as a raw material for making oleochemical products, one of which is solid lubricant. This is caused by the composition of fatty acids contained in PFAD not much different from the composition of fatty acids found in palm oil. This study aims to determine the formulation of solid lubricants (grease) from PFAD and mixture metal soap (Al-Ca) as thickener which has characteristics close to SNI solid lubricants and know the quality of solid lubricants produced. The method used in the manufacture of solid grease (grease) consists of two stages. The first stage is the process of making mixed metal soap (Al-Ca) by mixing PFAD and Al(OH)3 - Ca(OH)2 and analyzing the mixed metal soap. The second stage is the manufacture of solid lubricants (grease) from mixed metal soap (Al-Ca) and PFAD as well as analyzing the resulting product. Based on the research that has been done, the optimum solid lubricant obtained according to SNI standards is in the composition of A1: B1, A1 is the ratio of Al (OH)3 : Ca(OH)2 = 90% : 10% and B1 is the ratio of metal soap: PFAD = 10 % : 90%, so the density is 0.95 gr / ml and the penetration value is 194 (250C), the melting point is 970C and NLGI 4.