ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 5, 2022
Safety and Quality Assessment of Milk Before and After Pasteurization Collected from Different Regions of Punjab
Rimsha Rimsha, Javeria Munir, Ishrat Fatima, Naba Ishfaq, Haiqa Shahid, Haneeza Murtaza, Khursheed Haroon
Page no 135-150
Milk is an excellent source of proteins, fats and carbohydrates along with minerals and vitamins. It is the balanced diet for all age groups. In Pakistan consumption of milk is increasing day by day. Milk from different animal sources has quality and nutritional differences. Pasteurization found to be increased the milk quality and shelf-life stability by reducing microbial load. The objective of study is to evaluate the differences among the raw and pasteurized milk in terms of safety and microbial distribution. The proximate and quality analysis including moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total soluble solid, pH, acidity, lactose composition, solid-not-fat (SNF) and specific gravity were done for the milk samples. The microbial tests were performed for Total Plate Count and Total Coliform Count before and after pasteurization process. The collected data was analysed statistically to estimate the level of significance. Pasteurized milk of buffalo showed high value for pH 6.65, lactose composition 5.964, crude fat 7.974%, crude protein 6.453%, SNF 6.672%, Total solids 12.646% while pasteurized cow milk showed low value as compare to buffalo milk samples as pH 6.60, lactose composition 4.732, crude fat 4.744%, crude protein 4.353%, SNF 6.128%, Total solids 10.872%. Total Coliform count (TCC) for raw and pasteurized milk of cow was 3.320 CFU/ml and 1.2600 CFU/ml respectively, whereas for buffaloes it was 2.604 CFU/ml and 1.0900 CFU/ml respectively. In case of TPC it was 2.834CFU/ml and 1.132 CFU/ml for raw to pasteurized milk of cow while it was 2.0320 CFU/ml and 1.0720 CFU/ml in buffaloes. Result revealed that pasteurized milk is safer to use and pasteurized milk has low microbial count as well as authenticity in safety and quality when compared with unpasteurized milk.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 8, 2022
Renal Effects of Mandragora officinarum Leaf Extracts on Wistar Albino Rats
Dr. Chioma Don-Lawson, Dr. Oforibika, G.A
Page no 151-155
This study demonstrates the renal features of wistar albino rats exposed to Mandragora officinarum leaf extract. Twenty-four (24) rats were randomly divided into 4 groups labelled A, B, C and D and kept in a well-ventilated room. Group A served as control and these rats were treated with distilled water. Rats in the groups B, C, and D were treated with 3 different doses of the sample (1.5, 3.5 and 5.0mL/KgBW) respectively. Samples were administered once daily for 14 and 28days consecutively. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last treatment. Blood samples were collected into heparinized sample bottles for analysis. Serum urea and creatinine concentrations increased in a dose dependent manner at all durations of administration. This increase was significant for urea at the dose of 5.0ml/kgBW when administered for 14 days. This trend was present at all doses for 28 days of administration. Histology done showed normal kidney tissue architecture at all doses of 14days of administration. All doses in the 28 days group showed abnormalities of destroyed renal tubules, absent glomeruli and occluded bowman’s capsular spaces. This study demonstrates that long-term use of this leaf extract increases the risk of subacute kidney abnormalities.