ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 3, 2022
NMR Susceptibility and Magnetization of DNA Bases, Nucleotides and Their Derivatives with C2Fe+, A DFT Study
Leila Hojatkashani, Amir Ali Omidi
Page no 86-94
DNA strands and their bases are in the cells in every creature. They essential for growth, metabolism regulation and carrying genetic information bases to new generations. The bases of DNA are working with 0 and 1 system. In this theoretical research, first, by using Gaussian program, NMR susceptibility of DNA bases and their C2Fe+ attached varieties are determined. In the next step, with effect of magnetic field (H) and NMR susceptibility of these compounds, their resulted Magnetization (M) is calculated. These resulted magnetizations not only can be considered as a method to make a new (0) and (1) system for DNA bases but also can be used as creating certain signals to mark of DNA bases and their compounds which are attached to C2Fe+.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 10, 2022
Heavy Metal Content of Some Selected Shellfish from Oil Producing Communities in Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Johnson, J. T, Okon, E. A, Paul, F, C, Ifeakor, O. D
Page no 95-99
The level of heavy metals in marine ecosystem has been intensively studied during recent years as these hazardous substances could be accumulated in the biota. Generally, the presence of contaminants in shellfish is as a result of human activities such as industrial, agricultural wastes, crude oil exploration and spillage and this has pose a significant threat to humans’ health and other animals feeding on them over the years. In this study, some heavy metals levels in shellfishes sourced from the rivers of Otuoke community in Ogbia local Government Area, Oporoma community in Ekeremor Local Government Area and Sangana community in Brass Local Government Area, all in Bayelsa state, were investigated and the samples were prepared according to Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nation FAO (1994) standard test methods. The total mean of cadmium, Lead, and mercury ranges between 0.00mg/g to 0.002mg/g in periwinkle, prawn and oyster gotten from the three communities and was compared with the WHO acceptable limit of 0.5mg/kg – 1.0mg/kg. This could have been due to increased rainfall during the period of this study which in turn increase water levels and hence reduced or dilute the heavy metal concentration and thus less risk of bioaccumulation or possibly that the oil producing communities from where the shellfish where obtained might have possibly be link to lack of cases of oil spillage over a recent past before the commencement of the study. This study therefore advocates that periwinkle, prawn and oyster which are shellfishes used for this study from the rivers in these communities are safe for human consumption with respect to heavy metals load especially within the raining season when this study was conducted.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 16, 2022
Microcrystalline Cellulose from Jute Fiber: A Bright Prospect for Pharmaceutical Industry
M. Nurul Islam, S.M. Mahruf Hossain, A. Khatton1, M. M. Rahman, J. Sarker, H. A. Sikder, A. M. Sarwaruddin Chowdhury
Page no 100-104
Synthesis of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from jute sticks has been studied and reported in this work. The successful removal of lignin and hemi-cellulose has been confirmed through Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) technique has been used to measure the crystal size and crystallinity index. The FTIR analysis revealed that the acid hydrolysis had an effect on the crystalline of the fibre; however it did not influence the chemical components of the fibres. Pharmaceutical standard tests were done. Higher concentration of sodium chlorite produces minimum particle size and the effective thermal degradation occurs at 340 °C.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 16, 2022
Physicochemical Parameters and Antibacterial Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles from Carica papaya Leaf Extract
Mela Yoro, John David Samson, Japhet Joshua, Patrick Datheh Bello, Joyous Wilson Kitime Jonah
Page no 105-110
In this research work, Silver nanoparticles were synthesized from Carica papaya leaf extract via green route. The physicochemical parameters including boiling point, color, odor, density, pH as well as the solubility of papaya leaf extract were first determined before proceeding with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of Silver Nanoparticles first, was identified by color change from light brown to dark brown after the nucleation of the metal ions indicating that phytoconstituents of Carica papaya resulted in the reduction of Ag+ to Ag0, a phenomenon that could be attributed to the surface Plasmon absorption. The bio fabricated silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV – Visible and SEM to be certain of its formation before being deployed in the antibacterial studies. The UV-Vis spectral analysis showed maximum absorbance of 1.05 at a corresponding wavelength (λ max) of 400nm reflecting the surface Plasmon resonance of silver NPs from papaya leaves which is characteristic of Silver Nanoparticles. SEM image revealed that, the synthesized silver nanoparticles have a spinel like structure and an average size of about 50nm. The antibacterial studies of Silver nanoparticles were conducted against B. subtilis, K. pneunoniae, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. typhi. Different concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500μg/L of Silver nanoparticles were tested against each pathogen. The inhibition zone increases generally with increase in concentrations of silver nanoparticles. At higher concentration of 500μg/L, the zones of inhibition were in the following order; 24.44mm, 17.64mm, 17.52mm, 16.88mm, and 16.00mm for B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. typhi respectively. The zone of inhibition for Augmentin was found to be higher compared to silver nanoparticles for each pathogen, except for P. aeruginosa where it is almost the same, an indication of high activity of silver nanoparticles against P. aeruginosa due to the comparability with Augmentin. For each concentration investigated, B. subtilis demonstrated higher zone of inhibition as compared to other pathogens studied in this work, hence, Ag NPs may be a potential antibiotic.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 27, 2022
Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxylated Plant Oil from Thevetia Peruviana Seed
Olaoluwa Olatomiwa Oladumiye
Page no 111-117
Oils derived from oil-bearing seeds or certain fruit pieces are known as plant oils or vegetable oils. Using the Soxhlet extraction technique and n-hexane as the solvent, Thevetia peruviana seed oil was extracted from the seed flour. Its physicochemical parameters were determined using standard analytical methods. The hydroxylation process was done through the vigorous stirring of the oil and formic acid with the slow addition of peroxide. The hydroxylated oil was analyzed for functional groups present using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. The results of the physiochemical parameters showed that Thevetia peruviana oil has acid value (3.88 mg KOH/g), iodine value (93.5 Wij’s), peroxide value (30.0 meq/kg), kinetic viscosity (1.6cp) and saponification value (121.76 mgKOH/g) while the hydroxylated oil has acid value (0.77 mg KOH/g), iodine value (81.40 Wij’s), peroxide value (7.85 meq/kg), kinetic viscosity (7.43cp) and saponification value (162.05 mgKOH/g). The FTIR results showed that both non-hydroxylated and hydroxylated plant oils had the following functional groups OH, CH, C=C, CH2, and C=O. The results showed that the bands were shortened in the hydroxylated oil spectrum except (OH) which became broad indicating the formation of the hydroxyl group by the consumption of the C=C band in the unhydrolyzed oil. The hydroxylation of plant oils using Thevetia peruviana shows the potential of the plant oil to be used as a precursor for the production of industrial intermediates which can replace the dependence on petroleum products.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Aug. 30, 2022
Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Guiera senegalensis Leaves Extraction
Ahmed Abed elmalik, Fath El-Rahman Ahmed, Abed elsalam A.
Page no 118-121
Guiera senegalensis generally occurs as a shrub or a small tree which belongs to the Combretaceae family and locally named in Sudan as “Gabeish”. It has medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-asthmatic, potential anticancer, anti-anaphylactic and anti-microbial activities. The plant was collected from the traditional market in Omdurman. Prepared ethanolic extract of leaves were used to evaluate the phytochemical screening to detect the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenol, saponins, carbohydrate,cumarins and absence of anthraquinones and triterpenes. The phytochemical contents revealed tannins (1.662), alkaloids (3.524), flavonoids (39.350) and biological study of leaves extract showed activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtile, Papillus subtile and Candida albicana.