In 2020, the worldwide corona virus outbreak has officially been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO, a pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease. A pandemic is when an epidemic spreads between countries. Numerous viral infections have arisen and affected global healthcare facilities. HIV/AIDS, bubonic plague, smallpox, cholera, flu and influenza caused by virus are some of the most brutal killers in human history. Corona viruses cause common cold and infections which are generally self-resolving. Any outbreaks of these diseases across international borders are properly defined as pandemic, especially smallpox which throughout history has killed between 300-500 million people in its 12,000 year existence. Millions of individuals are at serious chance of obtaining a few advancing viral contaminations.
REVIEW ARTICLE | April 30, 2020
A Step Forward Towards Heavy Metals in Selected Fruits and Their Effects on Various Body Organs
Haider Ali, Muhammad Ikram, Asim Rehman, Sadia Akbar, Maria Qamar, Muhammad Bilal, Muqaddas Alam
Heavy metals toxicity in fruits is a great concern and there is a need for proper understanding of related mechanism like oxidation state and concentration. Few metals can be removed by elimination activities but others interfere in metabolic processes. These heavy metals can also involve in redox reactions, transferring electrons, basic nucleic acid metabolisms, and also being a vital part of several enzyme. Literature sources point out the releasing of such metals in environment by both anthropogenic and natural means. Ingestion of such metals lead to form stable bio toxic compounds by hindering bio reactions of functions as well as mutilating their structures. It may lead to various disorders and induce free radical formation. This review give detail about toxicity and impact on health. Eco toxicity test in addition to chemical concentration monitoring is very useful tool for examining remediation efficiency of such metals in soil.
Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune-mediated response, which arises on exposure to a given food and is absent during prevention. The prevalence of food allergies has been increasing in the past twenty years and it represents a major public health problem in industrialized countries. Management of food allergy includes allergen avoidance or emergency treatment. An increasing appearance of allergies and atopic disorders, such as asthma, dermatitis, and rhinitis, has been observed in recent decades. Epidemiological studies show a global increase in the prevalence of food allergy all over the world and manifestations of food allergy appear increasingly frequent also in elderly subjects. Henceforth, food allergy has become an increasing concern for families, clinicians, and policymakers. Several healthcare surveys, and results from longitudinal cohort studies around the globe indicate that food allergy imposes a growing burden to the world.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | April 14, 2020
Antifungal Properties of Copper Nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger
Salman Maqsood, Saba Qadir, Asim Hussain, Asma Asghar, Rubab Saleem, Sara Zaheer, Noman Nayyar
Except in severe conditions, A. niger it is a highly resistant fungal strain and causes many health issues with respect to asthma and allergy in humans. The fungus, known as the black mold in fruit and vegetables, also leads to the degradation of foodstuffs. Nanomaterials like nanoparticles of different metals are in progress against many diseases and microbial strains. Copper nanoparticles are one of them used against different microbial strains. The current study was designed for the production and characterization of copper nanoparticles and to evaluate their antifungal activities against A. niger. The production of Cu NPs was done by reduction method explained by Kathad and Gajera (2014) and their characterization was done by using UV-visible spectrophotometer. To evaluate their antifungal activity A. niger was grown on PDA medium with different concentrations of Cu NPs. The growth rate of A. niger was evaluated at different time intervals and compared with control. The UV-visible spectra indicated the presences of Cu NPs as maximum absorbance peak was observed at 590 nm. A significant inhibitory effect was observed on growth rate of A. niger at different concentrations of Cu NPs. Comparative analysis of these concentrations depicted that maximum inhibition was observed at 1.5% concentration of CU NPs. It is concluded that copper nanoparticles show antifungal activity and their activity is concentration dependant.
Scholars Middle East Publishers
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