ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | March 16, 2020
Study of Electrolytes in Serum and Aqueous Humour in Cataract Patients – Comparative Study
Neela Mannangi, Mahantesh Bhutal, Shubhajayarm, Dr. Jayashree M P
Page no 44-47
In India, cataract accounts for 80% of treatable blindness. Many factors such as ageing, altered blood electrolyte levels, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nutrition and family history are involved in cataract genesis. Lens has a high content of potassium and low content of sodium. These two cations are in balance with each other due to Na+- K+-ATPase pump and lens capsular permeability. Normally to maintain lens membrane permeability, water electrolyte balance must be maintained intracellularly as well as extracellurly. Hence alteration in cation concentration of aqueous humors can be attributed to changes in the serum electrolytes, these ultimately affect lens metabolism leading to cataract formation. The composition of aqueous humour has been studied in various animals. Few human aqueous humour studies were conducted so far. An attempt is made here to establish a range for the electrolytes mentioned i.e. sodium, potassium, and chloride in the human aqueous humour in cataract patients and also compare it with serum electrolyte levels. It’s a case control study. Sample size includes 60. Aqueous humour and serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-) were estimated by ion selective electrode method. Sodium and Chloride levels were higher in serum compared to aqueous humour. Further sodium levels were increased from Grade I to Grade IV cataract. Biochemical parameters such as serum electrolytes can be used as marker to determine the risk involved in progression of cataract. This serum electrolytes measurement should be done as a routine screening investigation as it might help in predicting early development of senile cataract.
REVIEW ARTICLE | March 18, 2020
Role of DNA Barcoding in Plant Biodiversity Conservation
Qasim Farooq, Muhammad Shakir, Farial Ejaz, Tooba Zafar, Kinat Durrani, Azmat Ullah
Page no 48-52
To prove the importance of DNA barcode one of the major point is that the genetic data is an important factor to improve the biodiversity conservation strategies and in fact at the different level of analysis in conservation biology many molecular tools. The aim of this review article is to access the role of DNA barcoding in biodiversity conservation in For the fine scale management of plant species, coral reefs, identification of cryptic and invasive species and regional management of fisheries in the field conservation biology molecular tools offer a great help. DNA barcoding had contribution in the conservation policy in such a way is that it came forward with the success of conservation action and other one is that it provide useful information about phylogenetic diversity and also about evolutionary history.
REVIEW ARTICLE | March 27, 2020
DNA Barcoding in Plants and Current Molecular Issues
Muhammad Shafqat, Fatima Qasim, Uzma Nasrullah, Mutloob Ahmad , Musawir Hussain, Haidar Ali, Samavia Noreen, Muhammad Wasim Qasim
Page no 53-58
DNA barcoding especially used in the field of molecular biology that uses primers with 500-700 segments to classify various species at molecular and genetic level. This review focuses on the role of DNA barcoding in conservation of biodiversity and current applications for the discovery of species. Some species of plants and animals remain unidentified at molecular level. DNA barcoding uses molecular tools for the discovery of species found in natural ecosystem and playing important role in biodiversity conservation. Genetic barcoding mainly focuses on conservation strategies on populations due to differences found in the mitochondrial DNA. The most commonly used DNA barcodes for the plant species are ITS, rbcL, psbA-trnH and matK. DNA barcodes has several applications for the detection of plants species by providing specific information about the taxa. There is need to use DNA barcoding in combinations with other sciences such as ecology and taxonomy methods for conservation of biodiversity. There is also need to use databases for appropriate storage of data about species to conserve biodiversity.
REVIEW ARTICLE | March 30, 2020
Applications of Biotechnological Techniques in Healthcare, Current Advancements and Future Directions
Nelofar Ansari, Asim Hussain, Isha Kiran, Muhammad Humayun Ajaz, Tayyaba Azam, Asifa Ghafoor
Page no 67-72
Biotechnology is the emerging field of science that involved for the development of medical products medicines like vaccine based on DNA, recombinant vaccine genomics and proteomics. The purpose of this review included applications of biotechnology in healthcare. Several diseases remain undiagnosed at molecular level. By taken advantage through applications of biotechnology, many advancement has been taken in the in the field of medicine and health sciences. These medicines are alternative of traditional medicines which were used without any diagnosis. In PCR, amplification of gene product visualize in a specific manner. In gene therapy affected cells are replaced with normal cells it can be used for both somatic cells and germ cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization has important applications to determine that how chromosomes arrangement involved in the behavior of an individual. Biotechnology also has other important applications in healthcare such protemics , genomics and gene therapy. Several vaccines have been made through using tools of biotechnology. There are some diseases that needed to treat at genetic level though healthcare biotechnology.
REVIEW ARTICLE | March 30, 2020
CRISPER-RNA Guided Gene Editing and Implications in Endogenous Genes Activation
Maria Qamar, Kinza Tanvir, Sadia Akbar, Usman Ghani, Haider Ali, Muhammad Bilal, Asim Rehman, Zulaikha Arif, Sumaira Batool
Page no 73-81
Short guide RNAs of catalytically inactive CRISPR associated 9 nuclease uses to express endogenous genes in human cells and bacteria. Chimeric nucleases help in precise and efficient genetic modifications leads to double strand breakage which can be repaired by DNA repair mechanism by homology directed repair and non-homology end joining. Here, we describe that single or multiple gRNAs direct dCas9 fused to a VP64 transcriptional activation domain to enhance the expression of endogenous human genes. Light-activated CRISPR-Cas9 effector (LACE) system induces dynamic regulation of genes in the presence of blue light. Targeted activation of endogenous neurogenic genes in transgenic mice leads to direct and efficient conversion of astrocytes into functional neurons in vivo. CRISPR-on can activate the endogenous IL1RN, SOX2, and OCT4 genes. Activation of genes was achieved by clusters of 3-4 sgRNAs that bind to the proximal promoters, result in their synergistic action in gene induction. Moreover, it fused with transcriptional activators in endogenous human INS (silenced gene with a fully methylated promoter). Multiplexed gene editing helps in metabolic engineering in yeast and CHO mammalian host. In this review we describe the applications and development of Cas9 for a variety of research or translational applications.