Background: Obesity is a complex, multi-factorial, chronic condition that is associated with mortality and significant morbidity and is prevalent worldwide. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of obesity on pulmonary function abnormality in young adults in our population. Method: A cross sectional study on 140 individuals, selected randomly from general population of Rajkot city was performed. A thorough history analysis (Height, Weight, BMI), Physical examinations Spirometry were done on all individuals after explaining the procedure and taking their consent. Parameters measured by the spirometer were FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEFR, ERV, IC, EC, VC. Result & conclusion: It was observed that lung volumes decreased with statistically significant decreased ERV (0.66±0.09 L) & FVC (3.10±0.91) as the BMI increases (30-35Kg/m2). Negative correlation was found between BMI and ERV (-0.307) at higher BMI Values.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 13, 2019
A Study of PEFR, FEV1/FVC and MVV among Wood Factory Workers at JAMNAGAR City
Back ground: Wood workers are more prone to exposed wood dust on regular basis. They are more prone to develop occupational lung diseases. PFT among such workers describe prognosis of such occupational hazards of wood dust. Aim: Based on such back ground we have conducted PEFR, FEV1/FVC and MVV among wood factory workers and compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Present study was carried out at Shree M P Shah Medical College, Jamnagar. We have used MEDSPIROR to collect PFT data in wood workers. Result: Wood workers have significant low PEFR (4.6±0.34), FEV1/FVC (87.98±3.66) and MVV (75.02±3.6) as compare to healthy individual. Prolonged exposure to wood dust in workers shows declining of PFTs.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 28, 2019
Perception of First Year Medical Students towards Newer Methods of Teaching in Anatomy
Background: Teaching is a process of imparting a corpus of knowledge to a group of individuals. Teaching methods in Anatomy include dissection by students, demonstration of prosected specimens, the use of models and computer animations, instructional teaching, study of living anatomy by clinical examination and radiological techniques. The appropriateness of a teaching method to arrive at the desired specific learning outcomes is governed by the concept known as “fitness for purpose”. Aim: To gauge the perception of first year medical students regarding the newer teaching methods. Materials and Methods: The Questionnaire based study was conducted on 150 first year medical students of Adichunchanagiri Institute of medical sciences, B G Nagara. The data obtained was statistically analyzed. Results: 26.7% of the participants were of the opinion that newer methods of teaching will help in learning anatomy, whereas 67.3% felt that older methods are effective in teaching. Conclusion: Effective methods of teaching and learning will improve knowledge retention of basic science subjects like anatomy. A sound knowledge in the basic sciences is very valuable in clinical settings; it allows the students to understand the association between presenting clinical features and diagnoses.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 16, 2019
Correlation of Placental Morphometry with Birth Weight and Gestational Age
Martin K John, S Ranjith, Ursula Sampson , N. Fysal, Abdul Waheed Ansari, Jithesh TK
Introduction: Placenta is the fundamental and the only organ between the mother and the fetus. It is flattened discoid mass having circular or oval in outline. Placenta and its morphometry play an essential role in the proper growth and survival of the developing fetus. Objective: To study the correlation between placental morphometry in Low birth weight and appropriate control with its gestational age. Materials and Methods: It is a case-control study conducted in MES Medical College at Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India. Newborns with normal (>2.5 Kg) and low birth weight (<2.5kg), having 35-37 wks (Preterm) also, 37-42 wks, (term) of gestational age were included. In this study, 350 placentae were collected, immediately after the delivery, wash thoroughly, cleaned, and trimmed it for the morphometric analysis like shape, weight, maternal surface area, volume, thickness. Result: In this study, placental morphometry of low birth weight babies was comparatively lower than that of the normal birth weight babies. Parameters like weight, volume, and surface area of the placenta were calculated with gestational weeks, showed a positive and significant relationship with weight at birth and gestational age. Conclusion: The examination of the placenta can be helpful for the future postnatal life and resist early adulthood diseases of the neonates.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 28, 2019
A Cross Sectional Study of Comparison between Individual Height and Median Nerve Conduction Velocity
Introduction: There is negative correlation between conduction velocities in both the Median sensory and Ulnar nerves and an individual's height, which likely accounts for the fact that, among most of the adult population, for each inch increase in height conduction velocities between the wrist and digits of an individual's hand decrease by 0.5 m/s. Consequence of it results in, impulse latencies within the Median, Ulnar, and Sural nerves increases with height. There is negative correlation between height and the amplitude of impulses in the sensory nerves. Functions of peripheral nerves and their parameters can be assessed by Nerve conduction studies (NCS). These parameters are known to vary with anthropometric measurements. Objective: To study the effect of height on the NCS variables in the median nerves of the limbs. Material and method: The study was conducted in 196 healthy individuals. The anthropometric parameters like height, weight and BMI were calculated. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) were recorded. Statistical analysis: The correlation of height with the median NCS variables were analysed by using Z test for two samples. Results: After the adjustment of other anthropometric factors, height (161.8673+8.140608) showed negative correlation with conduction velocities of median motor and sensory nerves of both the hands. Conclusion: Height showed a significant negative correlation with the median motor and sensory NCS parameters.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 24, 2019
Comparison of Haemoglobin Level in Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Subjects
Dietary habits are an important determinant of health. In vegetarian diet meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods are not included. Current recommendations for all the nutrients can be fulfilled by the vegetarian diet. Sometimes to achieve proper amount of important nutrients, supplements or fortified foods can be added in the diet. Researchers reported that vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we compared the haemoglobin level in vegetarian and non-vegetarian population from Rajkot city, Gujarat state. About 100 individuals of the age group of 16-50 years participated in the present study. Based on the dietary history, participants were divided into two groups as vegetarians and non-vegetarians. We conclude that in our study there is no significant difference in Haemoglobin concentration between two study groups. This shows that non-vegetarian diet does not have any beneficiary effect on haematological parameters in our study group.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 24, 2019
Comparative Study of Morphometric Measurements of Placenta in Hypertensive and Normotensive Pregnant Women
Placenta is a vital organ for growth of the fetus. Improper development of the placenta will have a strong impact on the developing fetus resulting in complications like maternal hypertension. The study was aimed to compare the morphometric measurements of placenta in hypertensive and normotensive pregnant women. The study was conducted at Dr BR Ambedkar Medical College and K.C. General Hospital Bangalore. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the hospital regularly and delivered their babies in the same hospital and their placentas were collected. Women who had hypertension in pregnancy after the 20 weeks of gestation, had consistently recorded SBP and DBP of 140 and 90 mm Hg respectively with or without edema and or proteinuria were included. Placentas delivered were divided into 2 groups. Placentas of 19 hypertensive women were considered hypertensive group and placentas of 24 healthy women were considered Control group. Placental measurements like weight, diameter, thickness, surface area, volume, shape, umbilical cord insertion and membrane attachment of the placenta was assessed using standard methods mentioned in the literature. The study revealed 44.1% of the patients were hypertensive and 55.8% of the patients were normotensive respectively. Morphometric measurements of placenta were significantly lower in hypertensive group as compared to the control group (p<0.01).
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE | Nov. 30, 2019
Morphometric Study of the Nutrient Foramina of Human Femora and its Surgical Significance
V. Sailakumari, G. Manoj Kumar Reddy and S. Lokanadham
Background: The major source of blood supply to long bones is by nutrient arteries in phases of ossification as well as during growth period Aim: to study the nutrient foramina of human femora and its surgical significance. Materials and Methods: 114 Dry femora (Right: 58, Left: 56) were collected from under graduate medical students and from the Department of Anatomy, Kurnool Medical College, Andhra Pradesh to study the morphometry of the nutrient foramina of human femora and its surgical significance. All the femur bones observed for number of nutrient foramen (NF) and location of nutrient foramen in the present study. The total length of each bone and distance of nutrient foramen from the proximal end of the bone was measured by using Osteometric board. Results: We noted 56 bones with single nutrient foramen on right femur bones, 2 bones noted with double nutrient foramen and also noted 55 bones with nutrient foramen on its linea aspera, 3 bones with nutrient foramen on its lateral surface out of 58 right femur bones in the present study. We noted 53 bones with single nutrient foramen on left femur bones, 3 bones noted with double nutrient foramen and also noted 52 bones with nutrient foramen on its linea aspera, 3 bones with nutrient foramen on its lateral surface, 1 bone with nutrient foramen on its medial surface out of 56 left femur bones in the present study. Conclusion: Variations in nutrient foramina is of great importance in understanding the blood supply of the femur bone for surgical procedures.
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