Formulations and Role of Analytical Techniques in Chemical Industries
Arifa Murtaza, Muhammad Kamran Ashraf, Nousheen Nazeer, Mahwish Iqbal, Ali Raza Ahmed, Muhammad Adnan, Muhammed Umar Israr Sabir, Benish Batool
Page Numbers : 156-160
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i07.001
Analytical methods refer to techniques used for the detection, identification, characterization and quantification of chemical compounds. These methods are commonly used in chemical sciences for research, development and quality control of pharmaceutical products. MALDI-TOF is a mass spectrometer that couples an ionisation source, the matrix-assisted lasers desorption/ionization (MALDI) with a Time of Flight (ToF) analyser is particularly recommended when a limited number of species are present in each sample analyzed. ICP-OES is a trace-level, elemental analysis technique that uses the emission spectra of a sample to identify, and quantify the elements present. Gas Chromatography (GC) provides a quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds found in a variety of matrices (gases, liquids and solids) in foods, medical materials, plastics, environmental samples and occupational monitoring samples. NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Spectroscopy provides physical, chemical, electronic and structural information from organic compounds in liquid or solid form. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy provides cost-effective viable solutions for the analysis of trace amounts of metals in the entire range of natural and manmade materials such as Geological samples, Environmental samples, Biological Specimens, Agricultural produce and soils, Pharmaceuticals, Foods and Drinking water.
Subject Category: Microbiology
July 6, 2021
Biological, Pathological, Molecular Diagnosis of Microbes and their Role in Pharmaceutical Field as Biological Target
Maira Zulqarnain, Muhammad Asad Zia, Muhammad Haseeb Anwar Tarar, Fatima Sadiq, Fazeela Zaka, Noor Fatima, Muhammad Adnan Saleem, Iqra Ali
Page Numbers : 161-165
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i07.002
Different infections in blood leads to infectious diseases that are caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites. Microorganisms are used in the production of antibiotics, vaccines, steroids, etc. The advantages and limitation of molecular techniques including real-time polymerase chain reaction, genome sequencing, molecular typing, microarrays, PCR and multiplexing required advancements at molecular level. Nucleic acid-based tests are used in diagnosing infectious diseases for isolating nucleic acids from through gel electrophoresis, and nucleic acid hybridizationsn techniques to analyze DNA or RNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in situ DNA replication process that allows for the exponential amplification of target DNA in the presence of synthetic oligonucleotide primers. The advances in chemistry that made real-time PCR possible were also significant, and modifications of these chemical reactions continue today. In situ hybridization has been introduced into the clinical microbiology laboratory and should prove to be a useful technology for the rapid characterization of bacteria and fungi in positive blood culture samples. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is an unambiguous, portable and nucleotide-based technique for typing bacteria using the sequences of internal fragments of (usually) seven house-keeping genes. Microorganisms are used in the production of antibiotics, vaccines, steroids.
Subject Category: Physics
July 8, 2021
Potential approach, Novel Methods and Physiochemical Detection of Dyes through Nanoparticles
Sohail Manzoor, Muhammad Nasir Akram, Javaid Riaz, Sanwal Piracha, Muhammad Mujahid Iqbal, Waseem Abbas, Muhammad Danish Qureshi, Muhammad Asif
Page Numbers : 166-170
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i07.003
Wastewater contains a variety of toxic dyes and heavy metals. Dyes are released by the different types of industries as environmental pollutants which has become a serious issue for the health of thousands of people. Azo dyes are released from the industries as environmental pollutants and are mixed to the drinking water of human due to their direct discharge into human inhibited areas. Many techniques are available for the degradation of dyes from wastewater such as reverse osmosis, coagulation, ion exchange, photo catalysis, and photo-Fenton etc. However, the traditional photo catalysis and photo-Fenton-like catalytic processes are active only under the irradiation of ultraviolet (UV) light. The photo catalysis involves the generation of electron (e−)-hole (h+) pairs under suitable light irradiation. There are many catalysts that have been used in photo catalysis such as ZnO, CdS, TiO2. TiO2 is used in the photo Fenton reaction that catalyzes the reaction between iron and hydrogen peroxide. There are many advantages of photofenton reaction such as reaction can be carried out with high performance and can be operated at the room temperature.
Subject Category: Physics
July 17, 2021
Numerical Modeling and Optimization of Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cell Using SCAPS-1D
Eng. Ghazi Aman Nowsherwan, Eng. Khizer Jahangir, Yasir Usman, Muhammad Waqas Saleem, Muhammad Khalid
Page Numbers : 171-184
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i07.004
The power conversion efficiency (PCE) for perovskite silicon tandem solar cells is significantly higher than all other solar cell technologies. Silicon and perovskite materials are used in several applications of photovoltaics and optoelectronics. But, this research study primarily focuses on the simulation of perovskite silicon tandem solar cells to investigate the photovoltaic characteristics by utilizing a solar cell capacitance simulator (SCAPS-1D). The optimized monolithic Pero-Si tandem solar cell performance has been analyzed by varying the thickness, carrier concentration, and active layer defects. Also, interface defects were added to the structure to simulate real-life performance. Results signify that after optimizing the parameters like the thickness of top and bottom cell layers, carrier concentration and defect densities, superior outcomes of efficiency of 32.97 %, the open-circuit voltage of 0.6747 (V), short circuit current density of 58.27 (mA/cm2) with a fill factor of 83.86 % was achieved. Also, the effect of temperature variation on the device performance was investigated. By carefully optimizing the parameters, a greater efficiency of solar cells based on perovskite silicon tandems can be realized.
Subject Category: Biochemistry
July 20, 2021
Biochemical, Biotechnical Significance of Mustard and its Role in Agricultural Based Industries
Muhammad Haseeb Anwar Tarar, Hoda Zahoor, Nida Talat, Rashida Humma, Muhammad Humayun Ajaz, Syed Muhammad Zaigham Zia, Sara Siddique
Page Numbers : 185-189
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i07.005
Mustard plant has great importance in the fields of agricultural sciences due to its high demand and natural compounds to make it important crop used as a food or for industrial purposes, with the residual cake used for animal feed. Mustard plant is highly rich in essential amino acids and protein contents. The protein is 25-30 % that making it excellent source of food used as oil in industrial and commercial purposes. Mustard oil has a special fatty acid composition; it contains aboutoleic acid, linoleic, linolenic acid and erucic acid. Mustard plant is used as condiment all around the world due to its large scale cultivations and agricultural importance. Most of characteristics make them ideal plant used as food. Due to efficient production and cultivation, mustards used as potential source in biodiesel production for significant progressing in the fields of herbal medicines. Biodiesel production is easy way to reduce energy in different days through the action of mustard plant. Mustard pant can use as a source to remove the heavy metals in order to central the biological pollution. Mustard plant as natural booster of immunity promoter in over to increase the survival of the cells.
Subject Category: Zoology
July 20, 2021
A Review on Laboratory Investigation of Anthrax as Causative Infectious Disease and Future Perspectives
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that is associated with herbivores and other domestic animals including humans. The causative agent of this disease is bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It is Gram positive, non-motile, anaerobic, spore forming bacterium living in soil. It can transmit in animals by entering spores in their bodies through skin, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. This can be passed into humans by improper handling and contact with infected animals. Symptoms of this disease are different in animals and humans according to the type of anthrax. It is diagnosed by different methods including differential and laboratory methods (PCR). It can be treated by vaccination and therapies that are described. Gastrointestinal anthrax occurs only after eating infected, undercooked meat. This review helpful to understand the anthrax disease, diagnosis and possible treatment.
Subject Category: Management
July 23, 2021
Determinant Value of the Firm
Winni Desta, Bambang Mulyana
Page Numbers : 196-204
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i07.007
This study aims to determine the effect of liquidity, solvency, and profitability on firm value with devidend policy as an intervening variable in the study of issuers indexed in LQ45 2014-2018. The population of this study were all companies indexed by LQ45, amounting to 45 companies. The technique used in determining the sample is purposive sampling, so that the sample in this study amounted to 8 companies indexed by LQ45 in 2014-2018. The data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis with the help of the SmartPLS 3.0 application. The results of this study indicate that CR has a positive and insignificant effect directly on PBV. DER and ROE have a positive and significant effect directly on PBV. DPR has a positive and insignificant effect directly on PBV. CR, DER and ROE have a positive and insignificant effect directly on DPR. and CR, DER and ROE have a positive and indirect effect on PBV through DPR as an intervening variable.