Review on Biological Impact of Seed-Dispersal with an Integrative Approach by Animals on Plant Distributions, Biochemical Composition and Future Perspectives
Neha Kainat, Muhammad Umair Dildar, Muhammad Waqas Abbas, Haseeb Arshad, Muhammad Izhar, Talat Sabtain, Muhammad Waqar Akram
Page Numbers : 72-76
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.001
Most of the plants contain a variety of compounds that are principally active and work against the free radicals. Out of potentially active compounds in the medicinal plants, antioxidants are the most important of all the compounds. There are various flavonoids and antioxidants compounds that are actually possessing the chemical structure with the high stability. Seed biology is an intensive area of study, a reflection of the significance of seeds for several scientific areas. Animal mediated seed dispersal is important for sustaining biological diversity in forest ecosystems, particularly in the tropics. From an evolutionary perspective, the ability of plants to make seeds has conferred major selective advantages, accounting, in part, for the success of seed plants as the largest and most species rich group of land plants. It is important to remove the free radicals that are produced biochemically in the specific organ in order to keep as well as minimize the effects produced by the free radicals. The antioxidants possess certain properties that differentiated them to the other chemical compounds. Animals that are highly vagile are considered to be the most efficient at active dispersal. Highly vagile animals include many species of birds, bats, and large insects. Large aquatic animals are effective dispersers, and some terrestrial animals can disperse large distances on foot. Seed sensitivity to nitrate is affected by other environmental factors, such as light and after-ripening, and by genotypes. Biochemical eptides are the several types of the peptides that are found in the inner portion of the onions. These peptides are gamma-glutamyl-methionine, gamma-glutamyl-isoleucine, gamma-glutamyl-leucine and gamma-glutamyl-valine.
Subject Category: Botany
April 11, 2021
A Novel Approach for investigation of Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Sunflower through different treatments
Ebadet Ali, Syed Asad Raza Shah Naqvi, Asif Ali, Hafiza Maria Mahmood, Maria Rafiq, Anam Ejaz, Muhammad Shakil
Page Numbers : 77-81
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.002
Zinc as one of the heavy metals that influence of the growth of the plant. Its deficiency in plants leads to abnormal growth of roots cells that ultimately inhibited the RNA and proteins synthesis. Sunflower has gains much important in agricultural pint of view due to its morphological characteristics. High and low concentrations of the zinc have been evaluated on the different parameters of sunflower. Water in the concentrations of 25 ml were applied carefully to the each pots and crops were harvested for evaluation of microbiological and morphological parameters such as for number of leaves of sunflower hybrids, root dry weight of sunflower, shoot dry weight of sunflower, chlorophyll pigments, carotenoids. In relation to biochemical attributes chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were reduced while a subsequent elevation was observed in carotenoid. Maximum reduction of growth, biochemical and physiological parameters was noted at 40mM concentration of zinc. Zinc toxicity involves in inhibition of cytoplasmic enzymes and damage to cell structures due to oxidative stress. It alters the catalytic function of enzymes which damage the cellular membranes and inhibit root growth. Zinc stress cause maximum effect on hybrid FH674 as compared to other hybrid FH687.
Subject Category: Microbiology
April 13, 2021
Review on Biological Techniques, Microbial Food Testing Approaches, Biosensors Principles and Applications
Uzma Nasrullah, Umair Ishfaq, Mahpara Qamar, Muhammad Azam, Wajahat Zahra Naqvi, Hamza Rafeeq, Zainab Noor
Page Numbers : 82-86
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.003
In the body with the high specificity and the sensitivity the ability of to detect the physiological and the pathogenic related molecules offers a opportunity which is very powerful and helpful in the treatment of the disease with the early diagnosis. The optical base biosensor in which the optical fiber cable is used in the different research and in many other medical fields. Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. It is estimated there are more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on earth, including bacteria, combined. In recent years it has become widely recognized that bacteriophages have several potential applications in the food industry. They have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics in animal health, as biopreservatives in food and as tools for detecting pathogenic bacteria throughout the food chain. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety.
Subject Category: Biochemistry
April 13, 2021
Review on Cellular, Molecular and Industrial level Role of Microbial Enzymes
Marya Bibi, Gulnaz Ashraf, Muhammad Omer Iqbal, Maria Rafiq, Hafiza Yusra Nazeer
Page Numbers : 87-92
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.004
Enzymes act as a biocatalyst that particularly catalyzed the reactions in the living organism by them to carry out the reaction. Enzymes have application in food, detergent, pharmaceutical and paper industries. Nowadays, the enzymatic hydrolysis and enzyme-based processes are preferred to the chemical ones due to the environmentally friendly nature, efficient process control, high yield, low refining costs and process safety. There are many enzymes that are used in different industries for the production of chemicals, drugs as well as other pharmaceutical products. Synthesis of enzymes can be carried out in different ways such as organic as well as inorganic synthesis but it depends upon on the nature of chemicals and reagents used for their synthesis both in laboratory and industrial level. Xylan is the major compounds found in the inner part of hemicullulose to make the cell of plants thicker as compares to the other cells. Ligninase as one of the important industrial based enzyme used to control the pollution in the environment. This enzyme has biotechnological applications in the fields of agricultural sciences for the production of agricultural products. Lipase is one enzyme that is used in fat metabolism for catalysis the fat molecules. It has also other activities other than digestion such as transportation of lipids in the form of triglycerides.
Subject Category: Botany
April 13, 2021
A Review on Current Advances in Crop Productivity, Applications and Impact on Agricultural or Biological Farming
Anam Saira, Hafiza Maria Mahmood, Asma Bibi, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Faizan Ullah, Mahnoor Aslam, Muhammad Amjad Farooq
Page Numbers : 93-97
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.005
Crop models are a formal way to present quantitative knowledge about how a crop grows in interaction with its environment. One of the possible appliances of remote sensing in farming is the estimation of crop acreage and recognition of crop situation because of either water stress or pest. APSIM model is composed of several modules that enable the simulation of agricultural systems based on plant, animal, soil, climate, and management interactions. As pesticides have various effects on the growth of crops, but the use practical applications of crop modeling plant extracts as the source of weed killers can be very beneficial for plant growth. Although there is a range of crop modeling crops, but sorghum and sunflower are the mostly studied crops effectively controlled by crop modeling. The main theme of agricultural research is very complex and diverse topic involving cooperation and antagonism of various processes in crops. Crop modeling has been a core theme of the agricultural research for controlling the various diseases. So, there is a need to conduct more research on the crop modeling relations of wheat with respect to increase the yield and productivity in order to increase the quality of crops to contribute to the human life.
Subject Category: Botany
April 15, 2021
Novel Approach and Biological Techniques to Improve the Crop Yields under Stress Conditions
Syed Asad Raza Shah Naqvi, Maham Saddique, Asma Bibi, Alyan Ashraf, Muhammad Mudasser Aslam, Faisal Nadeem, Muhammad Huzafa
Page Numbers : 98-103
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.006
Plants have defensive proteins to survive in drought and heat conditions by activation extensive stomata systems. Different factors affected the plant growth such as drought as one of major cause in seed growth inhibition. Biotic as well as abiotic stresses cause changes in morphology and also involve at the molecular alteration or activations of certain genes. Adverse effects of high temperature on cereal crops vary with the timing, duration, and sternness of the heat stresses. Harmful mutations that have drastic effects tend to be fixed in modern breeding pools. Drought also affects the growth of certain growth promoting factors also on turgor. It leads to problems in transport of water to different parts of plants such as xylem and other cells that playing significant role in prompting the plant growth. Different techniques and software’s are currently available to under table the nature, type and function performed by each gene in biotic and abiotic stresses. Microarray as one of the best technique used for the gene expression in the plants thus helping the rescuing of disease rate in plants. Different genetic traits have been placed in special groups in order to communicate the stress groups of plants in relation to environment. Different genes are activated under stress conditions that can be potentially recognized and sequenced at the genomics level due to different methods of sequencing used for checking their specific sequence of genes.
Subject Category: Economics and Finance
April 19, 2021
Determinant of Devidend Policy and Its Implications on Company Value (Study on Construction and Building Issuer Year 2014-2019)
Bambang Mulyana, Ahmad Badawi Saluy, Karlina
Page Numbers : 104-117
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2021.v07i04.007
The purpose of this research was to determine and analyze the effect of financial performance on devidend policy and its implications for corporate value in the construction and building industry sub-sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the years 2014-2019. The population was 18 companies and sampling technique is purposive sampling, so that the sample in this study amounted to 8 companies. The data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis with the help of Eviews Statistic application. The results of this research indicate that Cash Ratio has a negative not significant effect on DPR. DER has a positive not significant effect on DPR. ROA has a negative significant effect on DPR, while RTO has a negative not significant effect on DPR, and DPR has an effect negative not significant on Tobin’s Q.
Subject Category: Chemistry
April 21, 2021
A Review on Nanoparticles, Synthesis, Characterization, Current Applications and Future Perspectives
Nanotechnology playing significant role in different fields of sciences as the multidisciplinary particularly physics, chemistry, biology as well as in biomedical sciences. There are different types of nanoparticles depends upon on the particular metals and their function at cellular level. The most important nanoparticles are the carbon based, zinc and silver. Silver nanoparticles can be synthesized from silver nitrate as the main starting agent with sufficient quantity. One of the most important of synthesis of nanoparticles through green synthesis approach that are environment friendly. Through polysaccharides method, silver nanoparticles can be synthesized through the biological agent such as polysaccharides that particularly replaying impregnate role in characterization of nanoparticles in the presence of water. C. vulgaris as the active biological organism untitled for the production of silver nanoparticles at the normal room temperature. soluble polyoxometalates are capable of synthesizing noble nanoparticles through stepwise, multi-electron redox reactions inertly. TEM is a very powerful technique for the characterization of NP size, composition and crystalline structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is one of the most extensively used techniques for the characterization of NPs. Clay nanoparticles are playing important in textile industry to assist in making the long chain of fibers.