Invasive Modalities in Ocular Drug Delivery: Emphasis on the Posterior Segment
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(9): 374-379
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.9.1
Abstract: Ocular drug delivery to the scientists is a fascinating field because of challenges and exquisite barriers encountered in the ocular milieu. Till now, non-invasive approaches in ocular delivery are not yet successful with respect to intervention/treatment of long term ocular diseases. In spite of adverse effects with invasive techniques, they have been demonstrated promise in the treatment of sight threatening complications. The use of intravitreal injections or intraocular implants is gaining momentum with paramount progress in design, safety and efficacy from last two decades. Various intravitreal injections and ocular implants were developed with a wide array of therapeutic application potentials targeting drug localization for an extended period of time. Miniaturization of implants for their direct injection eliminating surgical process is currently being explored. In this review, various modalities comprising these invasive techniques targeting posterior ocular tissues namely retina and vitreous humor are summarized.
Sept. 30, 2017
Moderating Influence of Stakeholder Knowledge on the relationship between Social Reporting and Sustainability Accounting in the Tea Sector in Mount Kenya Region
Onyango Sylvester, Muchina Stephen, Ng’ang’a Stephen Irura
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(9): 380-397
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.9.2
Abstract: In accounting, financial reporting dominantly focus on profits. There is growing pressure on social sensitivity of accounting. Sustainable Development Goals advocate for concern to the environment. Some researchers have endeavored to demonstrate how accountancy need to respond to the social concerns beyond traditional goal of profit maximization that singles out shareholders from the many stakeholders. However, these studies have been deficient in addressing the moderating influence of stakeholder knowledge on the relationship between social reporting and sustainability accounting. The study adopted Mixed Methods Research of survey design. The target population comprised of the factory unit managers and accountants as the key informants, drawn from tea factories of Mount Kenya region. The sample was obtained by simple random and stratified sampling techniques. Questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. Data analysis entailed simple binary and hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis using SPSS. Study results were presented in frequencies, percentages and skewness for descriptive and binomial regression output for inferential statistic. The study found out that tea factories practice social activities that they incur costs which were treated as overhead costs and benefits were derived by tea factories. There was a statistically significant influence of social reporting on sustainability accounting; which was insignificantly moderated by stakeholder knowledge. The study findings were of significant to organizations’ strategies to respond to social externalities which in accounting terms affect the organizations profits in the long run. The study recommends tea factories adopt an integration of social reporting and financial reporting.
Sept. 30, 2017
Normality Fit to the Population Data of Health Insurance: A Catalyst for Managerial Decisions
Zakari Abubakari, Iddrisu Abubakari, Dorcas Kouame, Marian Maclean
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(9): 398-402
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.9.3
Abstract: It is always important to determine distribution of insurance claims in order to estimate future expected values. This study seeks to determine the normality fit to the population data of health insurance. Secondary data collected from Dormaa Municipal Health Insurance Scheme and Dormaa Presbyterian Hospital was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), Excel spreadsheet, and Easy fit. It was found that the population data submitted by 28 health facilities to Dormaa Municipal Health Insurance Scheme follows normal distribution.
Sept. 30, 2017
Numerical Study of the Physical Properties of InGaN Lasers for 1.55 µm Applications
Md. Jahirul Islam, Md. Rafiqul Islam
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(9): 403-412
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.9.4
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the bandgap energy, lattice constants, optical confinement factor, and physical properties of InGaN based quantum well lasers for 1.55 µm applications. Linear interpolation between the experimentally determined values of InN and GaN is used to calculate the lattice constants and the composition of the composite InGaN for the desired bandgap energy. Solving the Schrödinger equation in conjunction with k.p method and Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian matrix operator, the band profiles are calculated for the quantum well structure. First, the probability distribution is calculated, later which describes the electron density in the quantum well, and a value of 10-18 cm-3 is found from the calculations. In addition, the energies of conduction and valence bands are clearly demonstrated, and the corresponding heavy and light holes states are examined clearly. Determination of these parameters is of immense important for the microstructural fabrication, laser pumping power requirements, and practical applicability of the proposed laser structure.
Sept. 30, 2017
Utilization of Electronic Resources on Islamic Studies in Nigerian Universities: Challenges and Solutions
Dr Salisu Adamu Aliero, Abdulrashid Allami
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(9): 413-423
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.9.5
Abstract: This paper centred on the utilization of electronic resources on Islamic Studies in Nigerian Universities. The paper highlighted the types and importance of electronic resources in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies. It discussed the challenges faced by staff and students in the utilization of such resources. Possible solutions to the challenges were proffered. This is followed by conclusion and recommendations.
Sept. 30, 2017
Determination of Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Manga SS, Isah M, Kalgo MZ, Bazata AY
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(9): 424-428
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.9.6
Abstract: Medicinal herbs are moving from fringe to mainstream use with a greater number of people seeking for remedies and health approaches from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. This has aggravated the search for antimicrobials from plants sources. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves against some clinical isolates (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The study was carried out between January and June, 2014. The Moringa oleifera leaves sample were collected from the Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero Orchard and screened for antimicrobial activity against the isolates using agar well diffusion assay, and preliminary phytochemical analysis were also conducted using standard procedures. Concentrations of the extract used were 30mg, 60mg, 90mg and120mg. The extract demonstrated the highest activity at 120mg, with the zone of inhibition of 28.5mm, 25.5mm and 24.0mm on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. The results of preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Saponins, Tannins, Flavonoids, Glycosides and Alkaloids. The antibacterial assay results portrayed broad spectrum activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract against the test organisms with the comparable inhibitory zones by standard antibiotic (Ciprofloxacin). In conclusion the results from these findings have shown the antibacterial potentials of Moringa oleifera leaf extract implying that the extract could help as a chemotherapeutic agent or might be a lead compound for the development of new potent antibacterial agents.
Sept. 30, 2017
A Study among Adults to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme on Malaria Prevention at Selected Urban Slum Area of Gwalior City India
Mr. Virendra Singh, Dr. Madhusoodan, Dr. Mahipal Singh
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2017, 3(9): 429-434
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2017.3.9.7
Abstract: Malaria is a major public health problem. In India, Malaria is the disease is responsible for very high morbidity and mortality. The Government has got the larger responsibility in controlling the Malaria; with the community involvement is necessary, so that the urban slum adults need Health education programme to reduce the incidence of Malaria and for the prevention of Malaria. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of STP on prevention of Malaria. A quasi experimental single group pretest posttest research design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on Malaria prevention at selected urban slum area of Gwalior city. The study was conducted on 50 adults selected by purposive sampling techniques. Tool was developed validity and reliability was calculated, after conducting pretest PTP was introduced and then posttest was done. The findings of the study shows that mean posttest knowledge score (19.54) of the subjects was higher than the mean pretest knowledge score (11.72), hence PTP on malaria prevention for adult was effective. After the detailed analysis of this study shows that PTP for Malaria prevention was very effective and could also are used for other setting and for other community setting.