A Comparison of antimicrobial effect of the mouthwash containing chlorhexidine, Cetylpyridinium chloride, and zinc lactate (Halita) and chlorhexidine against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus: in vitro study
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureous and pseudomonas aeroginosa have been dedicated the attentions since its potential to create oral diseases. Therefore the control of these microorganisms can play a great role in oral health. To gain this goal there are some medical methods such as utilizing a mouthwash like chlorhexidine. Since the chlorhexidine has some side effects like changing the taste, there is a new formula of cetyl predinium (Halita) which can be an alternative to chlorhexidine. The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine and Halita on reduction of Staphylococcus aureous and pseudomonas aeroginosa. In this in vitro study there were 3 groups of chlorhexidine 0.2%, chlorhexidine 0.02% and halite as for positive control, negative control and the case respectively. Each mouthwash was pure up into 5 tubes in 90 ml and then 10 ml of bacterial species (0.5 Mc Farland) were mixed in with a suab and after that the specimens were picked up after 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 seconds after mixing the bacterial species. The specimens were then cultured in plates in order to count the bacterial colonies. The data were analyzed by SPSS 17. The data revealed that the chlorhexidine 0.2% has a significantly great effect on staphylococcus and Halita showed the higher effect on pseudomonas aeroginosa. Nevertheless the overall results revealed that the halite and chlorhexidine 0.2% had a statistically significant difference in reduction of the bacterial counts. The study showed that the Halita can be an alternative mouth rinse to chlorhexidine 0.2% because of its less side effects.
Oct. 17, 2016
An Analysis of Discourse Markers in Football commentaries
Aworo-Okoroh Joy Oghogho
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(10): 554-563
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.10.2
Abstract: The importance of discourse markers lies in the theoretical questions they raise about the nature of discourse and the relationship between linguistic meaning and context. Schiffrin described discourse markers as sequentially dependent elements which bracket units of talk and Blakemore as signals of procedural meaning. This paper examined these positions as regards the use of discourse markers in football commentaries. Drawing from a corpus data of televised football commentaries comprising of African and English football commentaries, it was discovered that the discourse markers go beyond the provision of cohesive relations and possess a core meaning which aids in utterance interpretation. This paper ultimately emphasizes the necessity of inference in understanding any discourse and concludes that pragmatic inferred meaning is essential for communication.
Oct. 20, 2016
The Impact of Strategic Plan Implementation in Sustained Focus on Instruction and Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Nakuru County, Kenya
Jane Njeri Njunu, Catherine J. Kiprop, Ruth N. Nyambura
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(10): 564-568
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.10.3
Abstract: This study examined the impact of strategic plan implementation in sustained focus on instruction and learning in secondary schools in Kenya. The study was informed by Total Quality Management theory is described as a quest for excellence, creating the right attitudes and controls to make prevention of defects possible and optimize customer satisfaction by increased efficiency and effectiveness. The study adopted descriptive survey design since the study investigated possible cause and effect relationship. The location of the study was public secondary schools in Nakuru County, Kenya. The target population was all the 25 public secondary schools, 25 head teachers and 606 teachers. By use of simple random sampling techniques, a sample of 15 schools was sampled, 15 head teacher and 171 teachers, for the study. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. The researcher personally visited the sampled schools to collect data. The validity and reliability of the research was determined through the help of the supervisors and vetting by five experts. The results were presented in percentages, graphs and bar charts, frequency tables and pie Charts. The study indicated that strategic planning has positive and significant impacts on instruction and learning. The research outlined conclusions and recommendations to head teachers and all the stakeholders to embark on evaluation of the impact of strategic plan on their school effectiveness.
Oct. 22, 2016
The influence of Strategic Planning on Safe and Positive Climates and Culture in Public Secondary Schools in Nakuru County, Kenya
Jane Njeri Njunu, Catherine J. Kiprop
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(10): 569-573
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.10.4
Abstract: This study sought to evaluate the impact of implementation of strategic plan on school effectiveness in secondary schools in Nakuru County, Kenya. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The target population was the 25 public secondary schools, 25 head teachers and 606 teachers. By use of simple random sampling techniques, a sample of 15 schools was sampled, 15 head teacher and 171 teachers, in descriptive studies, ten percent of the population is adequate but where time and resources allow, the study can use a big sample size for this increases the researchers confidence and reduces sampling error. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data. The validity and reliability of the research was determined through the help of the supervisors and vetting by five experts. The validity and reliability of the instruments was measured through piloting in the selected schools, peer evaluation and consultation. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. The results were presented in percentages, graphs and bar charts, frequency tables and pie Charts. The study indicated that strategic planning has a positive impact in creating a positive school culture and environment. The research outlined conclusions and recommendations to head teachers and all the stakeholders to embark on evaluation of the impact of strategic plan on their school effectiveness.
Oct. 25, 2016
Evaluation Program:The Communicative English Language Learning (CELL) With CIPP
Muhamad Taridi, Martinis Yamin
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(10): 574-580
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.10.5
Abstract: This study aims to analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of a Communicative English Language Learning Program held by adopting the CIPP evaluation model developed by Stufflebeam. Questionnaires were applied to measure the Context, Input, Process, and Product.7 lecturers comprised of 5 females and 2 males, and 31 female students were invited to participate in this study. Each component of context, input, process, and product obtained through questionnaires were analysed descriptively using a frequency and a percentage and then presented in tables illustrating percentages (%) and number of frequencies (f).The results showed positive outcomes for Variable Context, Input, Process and Product, and revealed that some encouragements and improvements in the facilities and other supporting material to be equipped as well as the learning environment was needed to be adjusted in making the program much more effective.
Oct. 30, 2016
A non-monotone Wolf-Type line search strategy for unconstrained optimization
Yuzhu Li, Qinghua Zhou
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(10): 581-587
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.10.6
Abstract: In this work, we propose and analyze a new line search method for solving unconstrained optimization problems. Actually, we combine a non-monotone strategy into a modified Wolf rule and design a new algorithm that possibly chooses a larger step length. Generally, the global convergence is analyzed under some suitable conditions.
Oct. 30, 2016
The Influence of Person-Organization Fit during Recruitment and Selection Processes on Employee Performance in County Governments in Kenya
Abstract: Recent developments within organizations have led to the realization that recruiting talent is one of the most pressing problems since proper recruitment and selection practices enhance organizational effectiveness. Anecdotal evidence suggest alarming rates of laxity, non- performance, absenteeism and corrupt practices as some of the job performance associated with county government employees. The purpose of the research was to investigate the influence Person-Organization fit considerations on recruitment and selection process on employee performance in Kenya. A descriptive design was employed with a survey method. The target population comprised all the county employees at the level of middle, senior and above in the 47 counties in Kenya, with estimated total employees of 58,617. Employees at the junior level whose engagement may not require rigorous recruitment and election process were omitted, with the assumption that the category of employees may not be familiar with the entire process. Simple random sampling technique was used to sample the counties to be used in the study. Consequently, six counties were sampled for participation based on demographic and geographic characteristics of the county. Stratified random sampling technique was used to sample individual study respondents, numbering 224 in total distributed accordingly among the counties of study. Data was collected using questionnaire and secondary source, eliciting information as per the study objectives as well as gathering information with respect to respondent demographic profile. Using Cronbach's alpha, an index of 0.76 for the questionnaire was established. With the help of SPSS computer program, descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages) was performed. Inferential statistics consisting of ordered regression analysis and correlation coefficient analysis were used in the analysis. The study findings pointed that person organization fit have a direct significant influence on employee performance at 5% level. This study recommends that county governments intensify efforts of accurately estimating the person-organization fit of their prospective employees during recruitment and selection process since it influences employee performance.