Assessment of Plasma Copper, Zinc, and Glycated Hemoglobin among Sudanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Khartoum State
Ahmed HA, Elmanna MM, Mohammed NB, Abdelrouf MB, Osman MJ, Modaue G, Rezigalla AA
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(9): 517-524
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.9.1
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) describes a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, which result from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action. The objective of this study is to assess some of the biochemical parameters related to diabetic patients. This is a descriptive, analytic, cross-sectional, and hospital based study. The scope of this study is to assess the plasma trace elements, glycated haemoglobin among Sudanese patients with types 2 diabetes mellitus in comparison with healthy Sudanese volunteers. This study took place during the period between September 2013 to June 2016 in Khartoum state, where is the capital. Its, population is about five million inhabitants. Blood parameters were measured using spectrophotometric methods. The (mean ±SD) of glucose, HbA1, zinc and copper in healthy subjects respectively were (93.5±10.5, 4.8±0.8, 103.7±82.5,103.8±66.5). And the (mean ±SD) of glucose, HbA1, zinc and copper in patients respectively were (196.6±75.7, 7.9±2.1, 132.0±89.6, 107.0±68.6). There was significantly increased of zinc and HbA1 and also increased in means of copper in patients compared to control groups.
Sept. 18, 2016
MicroRNA-9 represses sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in human keratinocytes
D.J. Farrer, J.C. Roberts, K. Ross
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(9): 525-529
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.9.2
Abstract: The protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is an established regulator of diverse physiological processes and one of several promising targets for pharmacologic modulation of ageing and longevity. In normal human keratinocytes, SIRT1 has been shown to inhibit proliferation and promote differentiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression, have been shown to control SIRT1 expression in several cell types. Using western blotting, we show that miR-9 represses SIRT1 expression in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The attenuation of SIRT1levels in response to ectopic miR-9 occurred in a dose-dependent manner. As miR-9 expression is known to be under epigenetic control, the effect of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) was examined. Levels of mature miR-9 increased 8-fold following TSA treatment of HaCaT keratinocytes. Expression of the primary transcripts from which miR-9 is derived was also raised in HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to TSA, with a 7-fold elevation of pri-miR-9-1 and 4-fold increase of pri-miR-3.In contrast the DNA methyl transferase inhibitor 5-deoxy-azacytidine (DAC) had little effect on miR-9 or primary miR-9 expression. Together, our findings point to a role for chromatin remodelling in regulating miR-9 levels in human keratinocytes and in turn modulation of SIRT1 expression by miR-9.
Sept. 25, 2016
Overcoming Stigma and Discrimination among HIV/AIDS Orphaned Children: the Role of NGOs’ In Kenya
Nyangena Emily Moraa, Dr. Erick K. Bor
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(9): 530-536
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.9.3
Abstract: This study investigated the efforts of NGOs on empowering HIV/AIDS orphaned children to deal with stigma and discrimination in Njoro Sub County. The effects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic pervade every aspect of children’s lives, their emotional well-being, physical security, mental development, and overall health. To ensure these children enjoy their rights, NGOs have been involved in empowering them by mitigating the challenge of stigma. The study was informed by the Empowerment theory by Andrea Diane (1995). The study used descriptive research design. Purposive sampling was used to get a sample of 47 children respondents and 10 key informants comprising of 2 NGOs officials and 8 community volunteers. The study collected and analyzed both qualitative and quantitative data. The results obtained indicated that the NGOs have implemented programs to empower HIV/AIDS orphaned children on how to deal with stigma and discrimination e.g. by holding their self-esteem high. The study found that children respondents’ lives have changed positively and they can freely play with their peers unlike before they were introduced to the programs. The study recommended that the NGOs should consider empowering the larger community on how to live with the children without stigmatizing or discriminating against them.
Sept. 30, 2016
Spark ignition engine performance fueled with hydrogen enriched liquified petruluom gas (LPG)
Miqdam T. Chaichan
Page Numbers : Sch. Bull.; 2016, 2(9): 537-546
DOI : 10.21276/sb.2016.2.9.4
Abstract: This paper studies the performance of single cylinder, 4-stroke, variable compression ratio, spark timing, and equivalence ratio, spark ignition Ricardo E6 engine, fuelled with supplemented hydrogen to LPG. The results indicated that the higher useful compression ratio (HUCR) for a mixture of two gasses was (10.5:1). The brake power when the engine was fueled with LPG had higher than that when it was fed with hydrogen. However, when mixing two fuels, the brake power increased and became greater than that when fueled with LPG to a certain limit (the hydrogen volumetric ratio in the mixture reached 70%). After this limit the brake power reduced by increasing hydrogen volumetric ratio. At equivalence ratios between (Ø=1-1.1), the brake power got its highest value when mixing the two fuels. The results showed that the engine could be operated with very lean equivalence ratios with additional hydrogen. The brake specific fuel consumption reduced while the indicated thermal efficiency increased when hydrogen volumetric fraction was increased.