Assessment of Serum Luteinizing hormone, Follicle-stimulating hormone and Testosterone Level among some Sudanese Marijuana abuse People
Rania Abd Elazeem, GadAllah Modawe, Shereen F. Abdelrahman, Abd Elkarim A. Abd rabo
Page Numbers : 2015, 1(6): 148-150
DOI : N/A
Abstract: Marijuana affects a variety of hormones that are regulated by hypothalamic function and it appears that the psychoactive ingredient, THC, is the major compound responsible for this action. To assess of LH, FSH, and Testosterone level in marijuana abuse. This case control study includes 60 marijuana abuses from Elribat hospital as case study. These patients are compared with age and sex matched with 60 healthy subjects as controls. All volunteers age ranging between 18-60 years. Blood samples were collected from all subjects, then serum concentration of LH, FSH, and testosterones were estimated using ELISA Bio TeK. There were a significant decrease in the level of LH, FSH and testosterone in marijuana abuse in comparison with a control group where the (mean ± SD) of LH, FSH, and Testosterone in marijuana abuse people were (4.9±1.9, 3.3±1.9, 19.3 ± 6.1) respectively while the (mean ± SD) of control group were (5.9±3.62, 6.9±3.6, 22.5±9.5) for LH, FSH, & Testosterone respectively. This study concluded that (LH, FSH and Testosterone) level were highly significant decreased in marijuana abuse.
Oct. 15, 2015
Assessment of Serum Thyroid profile concentration among Sudanese Marijuana abuse People
Selma Abdella Mohamed Saeed, Gad Allah Modawe, Shereen F. Abdelrahman, Abd Elkarim A. Abd rabo
Page Numbers : 2015, 1(6): 151-153
DOI : N/A
Abstract: Marijuana induce alteration Hypothalamus and pituitary function and altered subsequently T3, T4 and TSH. To assess the Thyroid profile level(T3, T4, and TSH) in marijuana abuse .This case control study includes 120 Sudanese males (60 of them were marijuana abuse were considered as study group, and the other 60 healthy subjects were considered as control group ;were they do not use marijuana). All subjects were sex and age matched (age ranging between 18-60 years).Study group have addiction period between 1-37 years. This study carried in Alribatt hospital, Khartoum, from May to August 2015, serum was collected from both group and the concentration of T3, T4, and TSH were estimated using ELISA Bio TeK. There were a significant decrease in the level of the of T3, and TSH in marijuana abuse in comparsion with the control group where the (mean ± SD) was (1.25±1.77, 1.18±.69) for T3 and TSH respectively while the controls group had (mean ± SD) (1.04±.30, 1.91±1.21) for T3 and TSH respectively with p- value (0.00). But there was no significant difference in the level T4 when compared with the control group (9.99±4.16, 9.47±2.93) with p-value (0.19). This study concluded that T3 and TSH were highly significant decreased, but T4 were had insignificant change.
Oct. 15, 2015
“Secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathyin a patient with Neurofibromatosis Type-1- a case report”
G Vikas Naik, Waseem Nadaf, Shashikantha
Page Numbers : 2015, 1(6): 154-156
DOI : N/A
Abstract: We describe the case of a patient with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy. On this association so far, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy seems to be related to the vascular involvement of Neurofibromatosis wherein some studies reveal release of PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) by the neural tumor.In order to exclude other causes of secondary Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy all possible causes were excluded.On the basis of clinical findings and exclusion of all other causes, and no literature or case reports suggestive of presence of Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy in Neurofibromatosis type-1, this finding attains animportant clinching and rare clinical entity and also signifies to include one among the neurological causes of secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy. The possible pathophysiology of Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy in patient with neurofibromatosis has been discussed.
Oct. 15, 2015
Influence of Tax Rates on Tax Compliance in The Informal sector in Kenya: Survey of Nyeri Town
Elizabeth Ndichu Gitonga, Dr.Teresiah Kyalo, Dr.Lucy Maina
Page Numbers : 2015, 1(6): 157-162
DOI : N/A
Abstract: Tax non-compliance reduces tax collection and the tax performance within a country. The Kenyan government has implemented various strategies to bring businesses in the informal sector into the tax bracket. However, available data shows that tax collections from the informal sector are above average but on a declining trend. The purpose of this paper is to determine influence of tax rates on tax compliance in the informal sector in Nyeri town. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and targeted 715 informal businesses in Nyeri Town. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 143 informal businesses to participate. Researcher-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from the respondents. Descriptive methods such as frequency distribution, percentages, mean, were used to summarize and organize data. Chi-square tests and correlation analysis were employed to establish relationships between study variables. Findings were presented using tables of frequencies and percentages. Majority (74%) of the respondents indicated that they tried their best to comply with all tax procedures. Results revealed that Majority (75%) of the respondents indicate that the taxes charged were too high. Tax rates (p=0.000) had a significant relationship with tax compliance at 95% confidence level. The study cited that tax rates were important predictors of tax compliance in the informal sector. It was recommended that tax rates should be reviewed for those in the informal sector to ensure that they commensurate with economic conditions.