“Saudi Journal of Biomedical Research” ISSN 2518-3222 (Online) & ISSN 2518-3214 (Print) is a monthly, peer reviewed, open access, Journal published by “Scholars Middle East Publishers”, Dubai, UAE This Journal publishes Original Research Articles, Review, Short Communications, Essays, Editorial comments and Case Studies within the whole field of biomedical and their applied fields.
Scope of Journal
The scopes of “Saudi Journal of Biomedical Research” are human biology, pathology, biochemistry, molecular & cell biology, genetics, pharmacology, immunology, applied or clinical chemistry, microbiology, epidemiology, Transfusion Science, Haematology, Histology, Cytology, Virology and biomedical engineering.
Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
Head Of Parasitology And Medical Entomology Department, Department Of Medical Laboratory Sciences , Faculty Of Health Sciences, Elsheikh Abdallah Elbadri University, Sudan
Dr. Paul, John Nwolim
Department of Anatomy, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Prof. Rizwan Ahmad
Dean Academics, Uttaranchal PG College of Bio-Medical Sciences &Hospital (UCBMSH), Dehradun, India
Dr. Hamid Osman Hamid
Associate Professor of Medical physics, Radiologic Science Department, College of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, Taif, KSA
Dr. Bindu Sharma
Associate Professor, Department Of Biochemistry, Subharti Medical College, Meerut(Up)-250005, India
Dr. Juhua Zhou
Ludong University, School of Life Sciences, 186 Hongqi Middle Road, Zhifu District, Yantai, Shandong 264025, PR China
Maikaje, Dominic Bawa
Senior Lecturer, Department of Biological Sciences, Nigerian Defence Academy, PMB 2109, Kaduna, Nigeria
Dr. Deepali Sharma
Department Of Radiation Oncology, School Of Medicine, Tulane University, La, USA
Dr. Ajai Kumar Singh
Department of Botany, UdaiPratap College(Autonomous), Varanasi-221 002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Amin Ahmed Elbadawi Elzaki
Associated Professor of Radiography & Nuclear Medicine Technology, Taif University, Taif, KSA
Dr. Abhishek Naik
Area Manager (Technology Development-Vegetable Crops) at United Phosphorus Limited-Advanta at Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Dr. Abdulsadah A. Rahi
Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, Wasit University, Iraq
Dr Wani Mena
Ophthalmologist, Juba Teaching Hospital, Juba South, Sudan
Dr. Aneek Das Bhowmik, Ph.D.
Project Investigator, Diagnostic Division of Centre for DNA, Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, India
Dr. Garlapati Vijay Kumar
Dept. of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jaypee University of Information Technology, Waknaghat post, Solan Dt HP-173234, India
Dr.Saber Mohamed Abd-Allah
Scientist, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, China
Dr. Rajesh Kumar Sahu
Dept. Veterinary Public Health & Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030, Telangana, India
Dr Rafiq Mir
Associate Prof, Comm Med, Govt SKIMS Medical College, Bemina, India
Dr. Anirudda Deshpande
Consultant Neurologist, Vinayaka Neuro Multispecialty Centre, Rohini Hospital, Max Care Hospital, Aditya Hospital & Jaya Hospital, Hanamakonda, Warangal, Telangana, India.
Dr Saurabh Srivastava
PhD Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Dept of Cellular & Molecular MedicineUniversity of California, San Diego CA-92093
Dr. R. Aravind Kumar
Melmaruvathur Adiparasakthi Institute of Medical Sciences, Melmaruvathur, Kanchipuram,Tamilnadu, India
Akdeniz University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Antalya, Turkey.
Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi
Diagnostic Laboratory Unit, University Health Services Department, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike,Abia State, Nigeria
Prof. Dr. Yunus Dogan
Department of Biology Education, Buca Faculty of Education, Dokuz Eylul University, 35150 Buca, Izmir/Turkey
Dr. Asim Kumar Dutta, Ph.D.
SERB N-PDF, Institute of Advanced Study in Science &Technology (IASST), (An Autonomous Institute under DST, Govt. of India), Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati-781035, Assam, India
Dr Sabyasachi Chatterjee
Senior research fellow (SRF), Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India
Dr. Olumide Abiodun
Department of Community Medicine, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria
Dr. Rajaram Krishnasamy
Department of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology, Anna University, Tiruchirappalli-620 024, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. Ihab Hamed Nourein Hamed.
Assistant Professor Of Histopathology And Cytology. Department Of Histopathology And Cytology Fucalty Of Applied Medical Sciences. Najran University, KSA
Dr. Rajiv Kumar Chawla
Consultant in Department of Microbiology in Delhi Heart Institute & Multispecialty Hospital, Bathinda, Punjab, India
Dr. Yuwalee Unpaprom
Lecturer, Program in Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Majeo University, Chiang Mai-50290, Thailand.
Prof. Maha FM Soliman
Head of Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt
Dr. A. Heidari
Faculty of Chemistry, California South University (CSU), Irvine, California, USA
Dr. B.P. Bhaskar
Principal scientist, Regional Centre, ICAR-NBSS&LUP, Hebbal, Bangalore-560024, Karnataka, India
Department of Statistics, Nnamdi AZIKIWE University, Awka, Nigeria.
Etaga Harrison Oghenekevwe
Department of Statistics, Nnamdi AZIKIWE University, Awka, Nigeria.
Life Style Guideline of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) as Prophylaxis and Treatment for Coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2) Infection (COVID-19)
Page Numbers : 125-127
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i06.006
Coronaviruses which are enveloped RNA viruses infect human causing acute and chronic diseases also cause severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and common cold. The aim of this review is to concentrate on ginger which has many benefits to human, as the traditional medicine for the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. In spite of spreading of COVID-19 all over the world, the incidence of the disease among Sudanese people still very low, most probably for their daily habit in using ginger as the traditional herbal drink in their life style. I believe that Ginger is the most effective traditional medicine for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 for its properties in improving immune system and fighting corona viruses, more studies should be conducted to prove this thought.
Original Research Article
June 26, 2020
Molecular Characterization of Human Rotavirus Strains Circulating Among Children Less Than 5 Years Attended With Diarrhea to Mohammed Alamin Hamid Pediatric Hospital, Khartoum
Waseem Sameer Kwami, Shamsoun Khamis Kafi, Mahdi Hassan Mahmoud, Abdul Hakam Hassan Aldigeal, Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
Page Numbers : 118-124
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i06.005
Diarrhea remains the first leading causes of children mortality worldwide specially in developing countries, lead to approximately (1.87) million deaths yearly.There is a global agreement that rotaviruses are the single prominent causative agents of childhood diarrhea illnesses worldwide. The objective of this work was to characterize human rotavirus strains circulating among children attended with diarrhea to Mohammed Alamin Hamid Pediatric Hospital using molecular methods. 150 fecal specimens from infants less than 5 years were collected and analyzed. The samples were investigated for presence of rotavirus using antigen based enzyme immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), genotyping was carried out by RT-PCR to determine virus genotypes using VP7 gene specific primer sets. Rotavirus was detected in stool of 42(28.7%) out of 150 total children. The study revealed that the percentage of (Rotavirus Ag positive) children was (29.3%) in males which is nearly equal to the percentage of Rotavirus Ag positive children in females (26.6%) but this difference in gender was significant statistically insignificant.
June 26, 2020
In Situ Monitoring of Ritonavir Protective and Therapeutic Influence as a Potent Drug on Coronavirus Disease–2019 (COVID–19) Infection by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR Fingerprint) Biospectroscopy
Page Numbers : 128-151
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i06.007
Ritonavir is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class. It is used against HIV infections as a fixed–dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir). In the current research, the stimulated ATR–FTIR biospectroscopy of liquid sample of Ritonavir was investigated. The stimulated ATR–FTIR diffractions emitted through focusing the second harmonic laser beam Nd:YAG into the sample were recorded by Echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector. Increasing the energy of laser beam from 2.6 (mJ) to 16 (mJ) was led to increase in stimulated ATR–FTIR signal but after breakdown threshold of liquid sample, more increasing of energy was led to decrease in stimulate ATR–FTIR signals and for energies higher than 20 (mJ), they were disappeared.
Skeletal formula of ritonavir (original trade name Norvir)—an HIV protease inhibitor and a pharmacokinetic booster. Orientation made to match to show the structural similarity between ritonavir and cobicistat. Created with ChemDoodle 8.0.0.b1 and Adobe Illustrator CC 2015.
Original Research Article
June 26, 2020
A Stimulated FT–IR Biospectroscopic Study of Ritonavir Protective and Therapeutic Effect as a Potent Drug on Coronavirus Disease–2019 (COVID–19) Infection
Page Numbers : 152-174
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i06.008
Ritonavir is an antiretroviral of the protease inhibitor class. It is used against HIV infections as a fixed–dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir). In the current research, the stimulated FT–IR biospectroscopy of liquid sample of Ritonavir was investigated. The stimulated FT–IR diffractions emitted through focusing the second harmonic laser beam Nd:YAG into the sample were recorded by Echelle spectrometer and ICCD detector. Increasing the energy of laser beam from 2.6 (mJ) to 16 (mJ) was led to increase in stimulated FT–IR signal but after breakdown threshold of liquid sample, more increasing of energy was led to decrease in stimulate FT–IR signals and for energies higher than 20 (mJ), they were disappeared.
Ball–and–stick model of the ritonavir molecule, C37H48N6O5S2, as found in the crystal structure reported in Pharm. Res. (2001) 18 859–866 (CSD Entry: YIGPIO02). Colour code: Carbon, C: grey Hydrogen, H: white Nitrogen, N: blue Oxygen, O: red Sulfur, S: yellow Model manipulated and image generated in CCDC Mercury 3.8.
Original Research Article
June 14, 2020
Hepatoprotective Effect of Azadirachta indica Leaf Fractionated Extracts against Snake Venom Toxicity on Albino Rats
Ibrahim Sani, Rabi’u Aliyu Umar, Sanusi Wara Hassan, Umar Zaki Faruq, Fatima Bello, Habiba Aminu, Amina Sulaiman
Page Numbers : 112-117
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i06.004
Snakebite envenomation occurs due to subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of venom into a victim resulting in complicated pharmacological effects that depend on the combined and synergistic action of toxic and non-toxic components. Hence, this research was aimed at evaluating the hepato-protective effect of Azadirachta indica leaf fractionated extracts against snake venom toxicity in albino rats. A. indica leaf was collected, authenticated and extracted using 95% methanol followed by fractionation using hexane and ethylacetate. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five (5) groups of six (6) rats each (3 males and 3 females). Group 1 received 1% aqueous solution of Tween-80 orally. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of the venom, but 3 and 4 were treated with 100 mg/kg b.w. of hexane fraction and ethylacetate fraction respectively. Group 5 received 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of the venom and treated with standard conventional antivenin. The hexane and the ethylacetate fractions significantly provided protection on the liver probably via inactivation of the venom cytotoxins leading to the hepatic protection. Among the two (2) fractions administered to the envenomed rats, only hexane fraction was able to significantly (P<0.05) reduce the activity of serum LDH compared to the venom control group. None of the fractions or the standard antivenin reduced the serum AST, but the levels of total and direct bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) lowered in the envenomed rat compared to the venom control group. In contrast, the standard antivenin significantly increased the serum TP. This research has provided a scientific proof on the antivenom properties of A. indica leaf, and the plant extracts tested can be used for the detoxification of the snake venom toxicity.
June 12, 2020
The Causes of Malaysian and Indonesian Pilgrims’ Hospitalization during the Hajj Season 1440 (2019) in Mena and Arafat Hospitals
Prof. Dr. Sharifah Ezat Wan Puteh, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Salem, Najibah Ali Radwan, Siti Dahliah Ahmad Zannah
Page Numbers : 98-111
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i06.003
2 Malaysian and 31 Indonesian pilgrims, most of them were older than 50 years hospitalized to the seasonal hospitals in Hajj season 1440-2019. The total number of hospitalization in the targeted hospitals are 1398 Pilgrims according to M.O.H census. 1398 out of total number of pilgrims 2,489,406 (0.05%). The common causes of Malaysian and Indonesian pilgrims’ admission in Mena and Arafat hospitals with referral are Cardiac diseases; 4 cases (0.28%), Indonesian patients; 4 cases, Nephrological disorders included Dialysis; 1 case (0.07%), Indonesian patients; 01, and pulmonary diseases; 9 cases (0.64%), Malaysian patient; 1 case, and for Indonesian patients; 8. As well gastrointestinal diseases; 15 cases (1.07%), for Malaysian patient; 1, and Indonesian patients is 14 cases. The highest and the Most common causes are pulmonary and gastrointestinal diseases. The collected data and diagnosis data were collected from admission registry, discharge summary, and report of Saudi health minister’s Closing Press Release on 1440H.-Hajj Season, 2019. 13 August, 2019.
June 11, 2020
Ocular signs in Fabry Disease Case Report
Mehdi Khamaily, Joumany Brahim Salem, Imane Tarib, Dahi Sidi, Salma Bajjouk, Rachid Zerrouk, Yassine Mouzari, Fouad El Asri, Karim Reda, Abdelbarre Oubaaz
Page Numbers : 96-97
DOI : 10.36348/sjbr.2020.v05i06.002
Fabry disease is a rare, hereditary disease characterized by a deficiency of an enzyme, α galactosidase A (α gal A), responsible for progressive damage to many organs, leading to various symptomsn, Ocular damage, particularly to the cornea, is sometimes a precious element helping the positive diagnosis of the disease. We report the case of a 40-year-old patient diagnosed with Fabry disease, with bilateral conjunctival vascular toruosities, a "cornea verticillata and a peripheral cortical cataract. Better knowledge of ophthalmological signs, allows better screening and can participate in the evaluation of the effectiveness of substitute therapy.