Scholars International Journal of Chemistry and Material Sciences (SIJCMS)
Sch Int J Chem Mater Sci
Prof. Osman Ibrahim Osman
Scholars Middle East Publisher
Country of Origin:
“Scholars International Journal of Chemistry and Material Sciences ” ISSN 2616-8669 (Print) & ISSN 2617-6556 (Online) is a Monthly, peer reviewed, open access, Journal published by published by “Scholars Middle East Publishers”, Dubai, UAE. This Journal publishes Original Research Articles, Review Article, Discussion Papers, Viewpoints, Mini-Reviews, Short Communications, Book reviews, Essays within the whole field of Chemistry and Material Sciences and their related fields.
Scope of Journal
The scopes of “Scholars International Journal of Material Sciences” includes all the areas of research activities and findings in all fields of Chemistry and Material Sciences and their related fields like Physical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Organic Chemistry and Inorganic Chemistry Materials Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry, Macromolecular (Polymer) Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry, Metallurgy, Forensic Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry, Aerospace, automotive, Manufacturing, Nuclear Industry, Oil and Gas, Pharmaceuticals, Telecommunications, earth sciences etc.
In order to obtain the optimal extraction conditions of anthocyanin in purple eggplant peel, purple eggplant peel was used as experimental material, the single factor test conditions were screened through determinating the content of anthocyanin in the crude extraction solution. The optimum range of the concentration of ethanol, the ratio of liquid and material ratio, the time of extraction, and the temperature of extraction were determined. Then the quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design was used to optimize the extraction process of anthocyanin. Four factors and regression model of content of anthocyanin were obtained. The results showed that the factors affecting the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins were as follows: the concentration of ethanol > the temperature of extraction > the ratio of liquid and material ratio > the time of extraction. Finally, the optimum extraction conditions of anthocyanin extracted from purple eggplant peel were obtained as follows: the concentration of ethanol was 78.6%, the ratio of liquid and material ratio was 60:1 (mL g-1), the temperature of extraction was 20 ℃, the time of extraction was 150 min, and the content of anthocyanin was up to 4.2399 (mg g-1). The crude extracting solution of anthocyanin was clear and stable, and the color of stable extracting solution was dark red. The validation experiment was carried out at the optimized conditions, and the preferable results were obtained, which showed that the optimization of extraction technology of anthocyanin in purple eggplant peel by this method was reliable, and which had practical guiding significance.
Original Research Article
Dec. 20, 2019
Proximate Analysis and Quantification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Some Smoked and Roasted Food Items
Omodara Niyi Basil, Fehintola Ezekiel Oluwaseun, Ojo Babatunde Moses
Page Numbers : 127-131
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2019.v02i08.001
Analysis for the presence and concentration of sixteen Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out in roasted plantain, roasted meat and smoked fish in Ondo, Ondo State Nigeria. The proximate analysis was carried out using the method of AOAC. A representative portion of about 5 g of sample was taken from the homogenized sample and extracted with ultrasonicator using three solvent systems: methanol, methanol: dichloromethane (1:1v/v) and dichloromethane. The aromatic fraction was subsequently analyzed with Gas Chromatography (GC/FID). The results showed that the percentage fat content ranges from 4.32 % roasted plantain to 19.27 % roasted meat, protein content ranges from 6.07 % roasted plantain to 44.86 % smoked fish, the moisture contents ranges from 19.39 % smoked fish to 58.31 % roasted plantain while the carbohydrate ranges from 8.89 % roasted meat to 22.09 % roasted plantain. From the result of GC/FID analysis, sixteen PAHs found in the samples ranged from 0.99 – 0.10 μg/kg, 0.01 – 0.73 µg/kg and 0.00 – 0.72 µg/kg for roasted plantain, roasted meat and smoked fish respectively. The sum of all PAHs concentration found in the samples was 6.16 µg/kg for roasted plantain, 6.22 µg/kg for roasted meat and 4.97 µg/kg. The ratios of phenathrene to anthracene ranged from 1.21 in fish to 3.66 in meat, which suggest that the PAHs are from pyrogenic source. Similarly, the ratios of Flouranthene to Pyrene which ranged from 1.01 in plantain to 3.76 in fish also suggest pyrogenic source due to combustion and the benzo (a) anthracene to chrysene ranged from 0.03 in meat to 0.51 in plantain which equally suggested pyrogenic source. Thus, the relatively high concentration of PAHs in the roasted plantain and meat may be attributed to the smoking process.
Original Research Article
Nov. 28, 2019
Graphene Oxide: An Efficient and Recyclable Nano Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzimidazoles from Aldehydes and Diamines at Ambient Temperature
Zahra Moniri, Farahnaz K. Behbahani
Page Numbers : 115-126
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2019.v02i07.002
The benzimidazoles skeleton, a category of heterocyclic compounds have important biological and pharmaceutical properties such as antihelminthic, antiulcer, diuretic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic and antioxidant. On the other hand, graphene oxide due to their operational simplicity, easy work up and inherent non-toxic, and possessing a wide variety of functional groups, such as epoxy, hydroxyl, and carboxyl, pays an important role in organic synthesis. Therefore, in this chapter graphene oxide was investigated as an efficient catalytic system for the preparation of benzimidazole compounds via the condensation reaction of o-phenylenediamines with aromatic aldehydes in very good yields at ambient temperature. The results in this method were compared with previously reported in literature respectively. Also graphene oxide was recovered and reused without decreasing in its efficacy for 3th runs.
Original Research Article
Nov. 12, 2019
Phytochemical and Chromatographic Screening of Extracts of Acanthospermum Hispidum DC (Asteraceae)
Jotham Yhi-pênê N’DO, Dramane Pare, Adama Hilou
Page Numbers : 109-114
DOI : 10.36348/sijcms.2019.v02i07.001
General: Asteraceae are a plant family widely used in traditional medicine. Acanthospermum hispidum highlighted in this work is very rich in therapeutic molecules. Objective: This study consisted in highlighting the wealth of molecules of interest of Acanthospermum hispidum. Methodology: Phytochemical screening carried out through characterization tests to concern certain secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids, terpenes, flavonoids. Chromatographic studies were used for the analysis of the various extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum. Results: The characterization tests showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and triterpenes, while the saponosides were found in the methanolic and aqueous fraction of the ethaolic extract of Acanthospermum hispidum. Chromatographic tests were found in the various extracts of the metabolites of interest such as flavonoids and terpene compounds. Conclusion: These results are probably a scientific source for the use of Acanthospermum hispidum as a medicinal plant. The high use of this plant could be explained for its wealth of secondary metabolites.
Original Research Article
Oct. 30, 2019
Optimization the Ratio of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) and Mixed Metal Soap (Al-Ca) in the Manufacture of Biodegradable Solid Lubricants
Sukmawati, Pratiwi Putri Lestari
Page Numbers : 104-108
DOI : 10.36348/SIJCMS.2019.v02i06.003
Increased development in the industrial and transportation sectors today significantly increases the use of lubricants. This means that a significant amount of lubrication is needed to meet consumption needs in the industrial and transportation sectors. Palm Fatty Acid Destillate (PFAD) has a high enough potential to be used as a raw material for making oleochemical products, one of which is solid lubricant. This is caused by the composition of fatty acids contained in PFAD not much different from the composition of fatty acids found in palm oil. This study aims to determine the formulation of solid lubricants (grease) from PFAD and mixture metal soap (Al-Ca) as thickener which has characteristics close to SNI solid lubricants and know the quality of solid lubricants produced. The method used in the manufacture of solid grease (grease) consists of two stages. The first stage is the process of making mixed metal soap (Al-Ca) by mixing PFAD and Al(OH)3 - Ca(OH)2 and analyzing the mixed metal soap. The second stage is the manufacture of solid lubricants (grease) from mixed metal soap (Al-Ca) and PFAD as well as analyzing the resulting product. Based on the research that has been done, the optimum solid lubricant obtained according to SNI standards is in the composition of A1: B1, A1 is the ratio of Al (OH)3 : Ca(OH)2 = 90% : 10% and B1 is the ratio of metal soap: PFAD = 10 % : 90%, so the density is 0.95 gr / ml and the penetration value is 194 (250C), the melting point is 970C and NLGI 4.
Oct. 14, 2019
Improved Engineering Tribological Property of Natural Fibres by Surface Modifications: A Review
Obuka Nnaemeka S. P, Ani Ndubuisi J, Ozioko Emeka R
Page Numbers : 86-100
DOI : 10.36348/SIJCMS.2019.v02i06.001
Increasing interest in natural fibres for composite material formation and applications informs the aim of this paper on review of various surface modification methods employed towards the improvement of the Tribological properties of these fibres for interfacial bonding with polymer matrices. Natural fibres have wonderful properties ranging from accessibility, bi-degradability, recyclability, low density and many more but have particular negative characteristic that needs to be corrected in order to improve its surface interaction with composite matrices; which is their great affinity for water. Different methods of treating natural fibres have been applied towards reducing the hydrophilic nature of these fibres. These surface modification processes do not only reduce water absorption capability of these fibres but also increases fibrillation and material wettability. This review of literatures showed that mercerization treatment and acetylation treatment are the most applicable surface modifications or treatments for natural fibres.
Original Research Article
Oct. 11, 2019
Phytochemical Screening of Okra plant from Libya
Ahmed Belgasem Ahmed, Hamed Alqamoudy, Ameerah Shaeroun, Ahlam Rashed, EL-Mahmoudy, Akram Almabrouk Misbah, Nadea Almunir, Manal M Elshili, FadiaTaufik M, Nouri Kushlaf
Page Numbers : 101-103
DOI : 10.36348/SIJCMS.2019.v02i06.002
The interest in medicinal plants in all modern scientific research remains to discover many medicines and drugs to reduce incurable diseases. This study aimed at detecting the effective chemical compounds, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids. In addition, the possibility of separating some of these compounds by TLC. The results obtained from this study have shown that most of these compounds are found. In addition to the ability of organic mobile phase to separate of these components where the values of Rf one to three spots .It indicates the difference in polarity and the composition of these compounds found in Okra under study.