Scholars International Journal of Biochemistry (SIJB)
Sch Int J Biochem
Dr. Saber Mohamed Abd-Allah
Scholars Middle East Publisher
Country of Origin:
“Scholars International Journal of Biochemistry” ISSN 2616-8650 (Print) & & ISSN: 2617-3476 (Online) is a Bi-Monthly, peer reviewed, open access, Journal published by published by “Scholars Middle East Publishers”, Dubai, UAE. This Journal publishes Original Research Articles, Review Articles, Mini-Reviews, Short Communications, Case Reports and Case Series, Essays within the whole of Biochemistry.
Scope of Journal
The scopes of “Scholars International Journal of Biochemistry” includes all the areas of research activities and findings in all fields of Biochemistry like Animal biochemistry, Bioluminescence, Bio-organic Chemistry, Biotechnology, Cell biology, Chemical ecology, Chemotaxonomy, Clinical biochemistry, Endocrinology, Endocrinology, Enzymatic chemistry, Enzymology, Genetic engineering, Hematology, Immunology, Metabolic Biochemistry, Molecular biology, Molecular chemistry, Molecular genetics, Neurochemistry, Nutritional Biochemistry, Pharmaceuticals, Photosynthesis, Structural biochemistry, Toxicology, Virology, Xenobiotics, etc.
Dr. Saber Mohamed Abd-Allah
Scientist, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, China
Dr. A.P. Attanayake
Dr. A.P. Attanayake, Senior Lecturer in Biochemistry, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
Prof. Rizwan Ahmad
College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, KSA
Dr. Dharmveer Yadav
Assistant Professor, Department Of Biochemistry, S.M.S Medical College, Jaipur Rajasthan, India
Assist Prof. Dr. Ammar Abdul Razzak Mahmood
Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry-College of Pharmacy-University of Baghdad/Baghdad-IRAQ
Hema Krishna R
Dept. Environmental chemistry , University of Toronto, Canada
Dr. Sabyasachi Chatterjee
Senior research fellow (SRF), Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, India
Dr. Nitin Sharma
Associate Professor, Dept. Of Biochemistry, Dr. Sampurnanand Medical College, Jodhpur (342001), Rajasthan, India
Dr. Khawajashakeel Ahmed
Head Dept. Of Biomedical Sciences Asmara College Of Health Sciences Asmara, Sate of Eritrea, Ethiopia
Physiological Growth of Sunflower with Treatment of Copper
Musawir Hussain, Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Shafqat, Asifa Ghafoor, Nelofar Ansari, Muhammad Wasim Qasim, Muhammad Shakeel, Muhammad Faraz Ali
Page Numbers : 31-34
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i02.004
The effects of different concentrations of copper sulfate on the growth of and the accumulation of Cu2+ by root, shoot and leaf growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were examined in this study. The purpose of our experiments was to consider sensitivity of the chosen 2 sunflower cultivars (Helianthus anus L.Cv.FH626 and FH674) to copper ions on the ground of physiological characteristics (content of leaf area, fresh matter, dry matter, amount of to show possible resistance mechanisms of this plant to copper ions. Afterwards they were poured with distilled water with the solution enriched with copper with concentration 20 mM CuSO4.5H2O and the last chosen combination was 40 mM CuSO4.5H2O. Waterings in the next phases of the experiment did not contain metal. In spite of the fact that no significant visual symptoms of toxic effect of metal were markedly noticeable, we detected decrease in the content of dry basis in the roots (less than 25–39% in comparison with the control of two tested cultivars treated by Cu cv. FH626 & FH674 tends to be the most resistant or tolerant to Cu toxicity from the point of view of evaluation of physiological parameters of particular cultivars.
Original Research Article
Feb. 23, 2020
Leptin, Diabetes, and the Obesity—A Corelation
Dr. Anil Batta
Page Numbers : 35-39
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i02.005
Obesity is a chronic disease and a major global health challenge. Apart from bariatric surgery, which is costly and not without risk, there are currently no successful long-term treatment options for obesity. The history of pharmacological agents for obesity has been turbulent with many examples of drugs being removed from the market due to significant side effects. Orlistat and sibutramine (the latest drugs on the market) provide only modest weight loss and are both associated with high attrition rates due to intolerable side effects. Furthermore, sibutramine was recently withdrawn from the market. There is a need for the development of safe and efficacious drug treatments for obesity. Methods: From our sample collection of more than 65 subjects for metabolic disorders research. These subjects were grouped on the basis of diabetes, obesity and gender status. Equal number of subjects was taken for each comparison group to minimize the effects of confounding factors. For diabetes, these sixty five subjects were divided into two groups (n=40 non-diabetic and n=30 type 2 diabetics). While considering obesity, these eighty subject were divided on the basis of their Body Mass Index (n=35 non-obese and n=40 obese). For gender based analysis, the groups based on diabetes and obesity were made (n=20 in each sub-group) and further analyzed while keeping n=10 males and n=10 females in each sub-group. Serum leptin and biochemical analytes were measured for all subjects and data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 software. Results: Leptin levels were found significantly low in nonobese as compared to obese subjects (Mean ± SD: 5.2 ± 2.0 vs. 7.1 ± 2.1 ng/ml, p<0.001). No significant difference was found for non-diabetics and diabetics (6.4 ± 2.4 vs. 5.9 ± 2.2 ng/ml, p=0.35). Gender dimorphism showed significant differences for leptin (p<0.0001). Spearman’s analysis showed strong correlation between leptin and obesity (r=0.43, p=0.0001), gender (r=0.24, p=0.02) irrespective of obesity or diabetes.
Original Research Article
Feb. 15, 2020
Comparison of Vitamin D Levels between Genders, Age Groups and Geographical Locations in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Dakshina Kannada: A Cross Sectional Study
Mahalaxmi S Petimani, Adarsh Aithal, Prabhakar Adake
Page Numbers : 27-30
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i02.003
Objectives: To compare the vitamin D levels between genders, age groups and geographical locations in a tertiary care hospital of Dakshina Kannada. Materials and Methods: A total of 208 (n=208) reports containing vitamin D levels were collected from Central laboratory, which were reported between January 2015 to December 2015. The values are tabulated in Microsoft excel sheet. Student‘t’ test was applied to compare the vitamin D levels between males and females. Whereas, ANOVA was applied for comparing vitamin D levels between different age groups and geographical locations. Results: Out of 208 vitamin D reports, 86 (41.3%) reports were from male and 122 (58.7%) from females. The mean values of vitamin D in males and females were 32.9±14.7 and 31.1±21.4 respectively. Even though females have low levels of vitamin D when compared to males but statistically it was not significant (p=0.512). The mean value of vitamin D from different geographical locations ranged from 20.9 ng/ml (from Ankola) to 78.6 ng/ml (from Dharwad) and 27.3±11.1 being noted from Dakshina Kannada. The intergroup comparison of vitamin D levels of individuals from different locations didn’t show any statistical significance (f =1.33 & p= 0.191).Similarly, there is no statistical significant difference in the vitamin D levels of different age groups. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there is no statistical significant difference in the vitamin D levels of males with females and also no significant difference was found in the vitamin D levels of different age groups and different geographical locations.
Original Research Article
Feb. 14, 2020
Study of Serum Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorous Levels in Hypothyroidism
Shivakumar, S K Bhargavi, M. Prasad Naidu
Page Numbers : 22-26
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i02.002
Introduction: Hypothyroidism is receiving greater attention as an important cause of disturbance in mineral metabolism by its direct action on bone turnover, and also as one of the causes for secondary osteoporosis. Calcium (Ca2+), phosphorus (PO4 2−), and magnesium (Mg2+) are necessary for metalloenzymes and various crucial metabolic pathways directly or indirectly regulated by thyroid hormones. Methodology: Patients attending the General Medicine department who were diagnosed clinically as hypothyroid for the first time (n=120) and referred to the central laboratory for thyroid function tests were enrolled for the study. 60 normal healthy individuals were chosen as controls. Results: In hypothyroid patients, the mean values of calcium and magnesium were found to be higher compared to that of the controls’. Whereas mean value of phosphorous was found to be lower compared to that of the controls’. Conclusion: Serum calcium, magnesium & phosphorous levels are widely altered in patients having hypothyroidism. So we suggest that constant monitoring of these minerals in hypothyroid patients will be of great benefit in improving clinical manifestation. Complications can be avoided by planning holistic disease management strategies for these patients.
Original Research Article
Feb. 8, 2020
Health Risk Assessment of Some Toxic Elements in Aquatic Bioindicator (Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus) from Tagwai Reservoir Dam Minna, Niger State Nigeria
Oguh Collins Egwu, Osuji Chigoziri Akudo, Benjamin Emmanuel Chinecherem, Ugwu Chukwuebuka Victor, Musa Achimugu Diskson
Page Numbers : 12-21
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i02.001
Fishes are considered to be most significant bioindicator in aquatic systems for the estimation of toxic metal pollution or facet of the impact of toxic substances on the natural environment. This study aimed to analyze the Hazard Assessment of Some Toxic Elements in Clarias gariepinus (Cat fish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia fish) from Tagwai Reservoir Minna, Niger State Nigeria and the health risk associated with their consumption. The water samples were collected from Tagwai Reservoir and analyzed for water physicochemical properties (pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and temperature) using a standard method and concentrations of heavy metal in fish and water, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb were analyze using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The Bioaccumulation factor and health risk (daily intake, health risk index and hazard index) from the consumption of these fishes was assessed using standard methods and formula. All samples (fish and water) collected were digested using a modified procedure from the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and were subsequently analyzed using AAS. The result of the physicochemical properties and Heavy metal concentration in water and fishes shows a significant increase (P<0.05) in parameters. The values of physicochemical properties were dissolve oxygen (5.03 mg/l), pH (5.75), Temperature (32.45 ºC), and electrical conductivity (691.52 mg/l) which are significantly higher than the WHO recommended values. Water and fish samples from Tagwai reservoir were contaminated with HMs. The concentration of HMs on fish from Tagwai reservoir were all greater than the maximum permissible limit of metals As (0.01), Cd (0.05), Cr (1.5), Hg (0.01), and Pb (0.3 mg/kg) of HMs in fish as recommended by FAO/WHO. Total hazard Index of all metals in O. niloticus, and C.gariepinus from Tagwai reservoir were 2.65 and 3.07 respectively. This conclude that fish in Tagwai reservoir are contaminated with HMs with deleterious effect on fishes and also bioaccumulate in the fish. The risk assessment shows that fish in Tagwai reservoir are contaminated with potentially toxic elements and could pose health risk from heavy metal contamination when consume via food chain.
Original Research Article
Jan. 30, 2020
Correlation of Anemia and Serum Transferrin in Diabetic Nephropathy
Dr. Naveen Kumar Sambu, Dr. Durga Prasad Kedam, Dr. Havilah Polur, Mr. Suman Putta
Page Numbers : 8-11
DOI : 10.36348/sijb.2020.v03i01.002
Background: End Stage Renal Disease is the common cuase of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from diabetes and hypertension. Loss of transferrin and renal impairment in diabetic patients might lead to microcytic anaemia. Progression of nephropathy in these patients can be prevented by checking the hemoglobin levels. Objectives: This study is aimed at identifying the relationship of transferrin levels and anaemia in diabetic nephropathy. Methods: The study included 100 patients who were categorized as 20 normoalbuminuric, 40 microalbuminuric and 40 macroalbuminruic based on urine albumin levles. Serum Transferrin, Hemoglobin were measured in all the three groups. Results: The data obtained concludes that the levels of hemoglobin are significantly reduced in macroalbuminuric (9.0 + 1.61) than mciroalbuminuric (11.5 + 1.71) as compared to normoalbuminuric (13.1 + 1.91) patients. Serum transferrin levels were significantly reduced in macroalbuminuria (207 + 33.7) as compared to normoalbuminuria (263 + 51.8), which in correlation to hemoglobin levels. Conclusion: Anaemia was often seen at an early stage in diabetic nephropathy than in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is, therefore, crucial to monitor anaemia to prevent the progression of renal disease in diabetic patients manifested as microalbuminuria. Plasma transferrin levels are decreased in macroalbuminuria though the synthesis is increased in diabetic nephropathy as the response doesn't compensate for the loss of transferrin in the urine. Further understanding of the mechanism and providing the therapy may improve patient outcomes.
Original Research Article
Jan. 16, 2020
Study of Association of C - reactive protein and Alkaline Phosphatase in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Background: The prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes are rising rapidly worldwide, especially in Asia. Diabetes has been linked to a shorter life expectancy mainly because of its complications, including heart disease, strokes, eye disease, and kidney failure and bone disease. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between high sensitive C reactive protein (hsCRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in type 2 diabetes patients. Furthermore, we investigated correlation between serum hsCRP and ALP level with glycaemic triad (FBS, PPBS, HbA1c) in case and control group. Methods: A cross sectional study consists of 200 patients out of which 100 normal healthy controls (Group I), case - 100 patients having type 2 DM (Group II). FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, hsCRP and ALP were measured. Results: Mean serum hsCRP and ALP level were statistically significantly higher in case group compared to control group. Moreover, significant positive correlation was observed between hsCRP and ALP level as well as both with FBS, PPBS and HbA1c. Conclusions: Oxidative stress and inflammation appears to be a key component and also associated with poor glycaemic control and further pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. All our finding suggesting a link between oxidative stress, inflammation and glycaemic control in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.