Scholars International Journal of Anatomy and Physiology (SIJAP) | Volume-3;-Issue-02
Original Research Article
Feb. 27, 2020
Control Region Sequencing of Hyper Variable Segment Ii (HVSII) of Mitochondrial DNA and its Genetic Relationship in Asholio and Atakar Ethnic Group of Nigeria
Solomon A Y, Danborno S. B, Timbuak J
Page Numbers : 16-23
DOI : 10.36348/sijap.2020.v03i02.001
Africa contains the most genetically divergent group of continental populations and several studies have reported that African populations show a high degree of population stratification. In this regard, it is important to investigate the potential for population genetic structure or stratification of some ethnic groups. Nigeria is one of the West Africa countries that took part in the human history since the dawn of modern man. The population of Nigeria is composed of Asholio and Atakar ethnic groups in the southern part of Kaduna state. DNA genetic marker such as HVII region of the mitochondrial DNA of a sample population of Asholio and Atakar ethnic group was used to get population genetic parameters. Buccal cells of 40 unrelated male individuals, 20 from each ethnic group was extracted using the protocol describe by Bioneer AccuPrep® Genomic DNA extraction kit. DNA samples extracted were analyzed and HVS-II sequences were amplified and purified. Sequencing for the light strand was done followed by sequence alignment, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Nucleotide positions 73-340 for HVS-II were compared to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and 40 haplotypes were observed with haplotypic diversity of 0.9431 for Asholio and 0.9560 for Atakar. A total of 80 polymorphic sites characterized the haplotypes. All of the haplotypes found have been described in other West African populations of the world. The haplotypes frequencies were used to calculate FST. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups present in Africans were represented in the two ethnic groups. The genetic diversity of Asholio was 0.9143 and Atakar, 0.9145. The calculation of FST (0.003) for the two ethnic groups suggests no difference between them. In order to understand the expansion of the haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA in West Africa, the studied population was compared with neighbor populations. Some African ethnic groups were grouped and the Asholio and Atakar ethnic groups were next to the west African populations. Therefore we can suggest that the populations geographically related and those with the same language (West Africa) are genetically similar, corroborating the fact that these mtDNA marker can be used in the inquiry of the recent history of a population.