Interactions between Non-oil exports and GDP, FDI in Saudi Arabia 1970-2019: A practical manual ARDL Approach and Toda - Yamamoto Causality
Hassan Tawakol A. Fadol
Page Numbers : 139-145
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2020.v06i06.001
This paper aims to estimate the effect of Non-oil Exports on GDP, FDI in Saudi Arabian economy for the period between 1970 and 2019. Moreover, it investigates the causal relationship between Non-oil Exports, GDP and FDI applying the ARDL Bound test and Bootstrap Toda - Yamamoto (1995) causality test. The findings of this study suggest that Saudi Arabia followed an export-led growth path and that economic growth has a significant effect on the FDI growth process via export growth channels, in particular, non-oil exports. The overall findings of this study suggest that non-oil exports growth positively affects GDP in the Saudi economy, which in turn supports increased demand for FDI, when all things are considered equal. The results also show that an encouragement of non-oil exports is a necessity for an effective GDP, FDI in KSA. Therefore, in designing policies towards this direction, economy policy response lag need to be taken into. thus we suggest encouraging non-oil export activities in order to stimulate long-term economic growth in KSA this is by supporting increase demand for FDI. A favorable FDI would reduce the cost of production for producers in the non-oil sector. Thus, leading to a growth in the economy.
Subject Category: Political Science
June 30, 2020
A Critical analysis on the Challenges and Impacts of Mobile- Telecommunication Sector in Cameroon
Kinga Hellen Kimah
Page Numbers : 146-163
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2020.v06i06.002
Mobile telecommunication and information technology is of utmost important in our social life, the economy, business transactions and education among others. Regrettably, the interacting innovations in products, services and technologies with a general convergence or blurring of distinctions between platforms, products and services has created enormous impacts and challenges in the mobile telephony sector. This paper therefore, seeks to examine these impacts and challenges of mobile telecommunications sector in Cameroon. In order to attain the above objectives, we employed content analysis in this regard. This paper therefore, conclude with some robust recommendations which if effectively implemented, will go a long way to improve on the mobile telecommunication sector as a result, enhance the digital economy of Cameroon.
Subject Category: Chemistry
June 30, 2020
Analysis on Some Essential and Non-Essential Metals in Bulla of Enset (E. Ventricosum) with Supporting Soil sample in West Showa Zone
Teressa Bedada, Alemayehu Abebaw
Page Numbers : 164-173
DOI : 10.36348/sb.2020.v06i06.003
The aim of this study was to investigate the level of essential and non essential metals in Bulla of Ensete ventricosum and soil samples in West Showa Zone. K and Na were analyzed using FAES, Ca and Mg were determined complecometric titration method and the other metals with FAAS after appropriate quality control measures were undertaken to verify and maintain the quality of the data generated. The optimized wet digestion method for Bulla and soil analysis was found effective for all of the minerals and as it was evaluated through the recovery experiment, a good percentage recovery 96.85% (Fe in Bulla) to 112% (Pb in soil) was obtained for the minerals identified. The results of this study showed that the average concentrations were ranged in order decreasing in (mgkg-1) 3366.28(K) >1881.57(Na) > 593.44(Mg) > 862.85(Ca) > 55.68(Fe) > 6.99(Zn)>3.09(Cu)>2.96(Mn). Cd and Pb were not detected for Bulla and 3521.11(K)>3497.85(Mg)>3461.59(Fe)>3294.93(Ca)>1096.89(Na)>(93.99(Mn)>16.74(Zn)>3.77(Cu)>0.26(Cd) for soil sample and Pb was not detected. The concentrations of the metals were also compared with recommended maximum permissible limits and some international reports; and found to be in a good agreement indicating no exposure risk of using the bulla and corm of Ensete ventricosumunder the current situation. Statistical test of significance using ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) between the values of metals in the bulla and soil samples obtained from all the sampling sites except Zn and Fe for bulla and Ca in soil.